Bali volcano forces mass evacuation
Indonesia has raised its eruption warning for Bali’s Mount Agung volcano to the top level and told 90,000-100,000 residents of 22 villages around the mountain to evacuate immediately.
Indonesia’s National Disaster Mitigation Agency has expanded the danger zone to 10 kilometres (6 miles) in places from the previous 7.5 kilometres. It said that a massive eruption is possible.
Spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho told a news conference that despite the evacuation of some 40,000 people, many others are reluctant to abandon their livestock.
Ash clouds forced the closure of the tourist island’s international airport, stranding almost 60,000 people.
The volcano’s last major eruption in 1963 killed about 1100 people
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater.
For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates.
Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of “plate hypothesis” volcanism