CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 27-August, 2017
Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams
1.Thinking outside the manufacturing box
In this article author talks about unemployment issue and how to solve this problem
Why in news?
Last week, Arvind Panagariya, the outgoing vice chairman of NITI Aayog, organised what was perhaps the most innovative and inclusive effort yet to make Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of ‘Make in India’ a reality.
What was the meeting all about?
- Two hundred of India’s best and brightest young were invited by the government’s think tank to brainstorm over a day and a half and come up with ideas and solutions for making India a manufacturing hub of the world.
- At the end of the ‘Champions of Change’ programme, the CEOs were expected to come up with short presentations covering possible solutions, cutting across the six core themes of the conference.
- New India by 2022, Doubling Farmers’ Incomes, creating Cities of Tomorrow, Make in India, Reforming the Financial Sector, and building World-Class Infrastructure.
Facts about jobless growth
- The spectre of “jobless growth” is real, and as millions continue to join the workforce every year without finding enough ‘good’ jobs, jobs or the lack of them could become a make-or-break issue at the next general elections, approaching with gathering speed.
- India is doing fairly well on the growth front: the overall economy is growing at 7.1%, while the services sector, which accounts for over 53% of the gross value added, is clocking 9% growth, the highest in the world in the services sector among major economies.
- The reality is that the number of jobs created — over 6 lakh according to Dattatreya and just 1.35 lakh jobs in three years according to the Centre for Equity Studies’s India Exclusion Report 2016
- It is time our young CEOs turned their attention to how the products and services they deliver can create jobs outside the factory — and come up with innovative solutions and skills programmes to make that happen.
- India may not become the ‘making’ capital of the world — but it can become the ‘remaking’ and ‘reusing’ capital.
How the idea works
Every car Hyundai or Maruti makes creates dozens of jobs down the line — from drivers to mechanics to spare parts and fuel shops to even car cleaning. A single mega factory can manufacture all the denim needed for all the jeans worn by young people in the world
It would still take millions to convert cloth to clothes, to sell them, to repair zips and buttons, and eventually, when they are worn, to recycle them.
2.Across the aisle- India at 70: The curse of caste
In this article the author talks about caste system in India and how could it flourish till date
Caste System in India
Caste system is a phenomenon related to Hinduism in particular. Its origin, evolution and existence are peculiar to India. Caste system is a system much like western concept of racism where people are discriminated against due to their skin colour; similarly, in caste system, discrimination is done on the basis of birth i.e. a person’s social status is defined on the basis of his/her caste in which he/she took birth and that is the sole criterion of establishing his/her social status. In other words, on the basis of caste, it is fixed at the time of a person’s birth that whether she/he would have higher or lower status in social hierarchy.
How did caste come about?
Manusmriti, widely regarded to be the most important and authoritative book on Hindu law and dating back to at least 1,000 years before Christ was born, “acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society”.
The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation.
At the top of the hierarchy were the Brahmins who were mainly teachers and intellectuals and are believed to have come from Brahma’s head. Then came the Kshatriyas, or the warriors and rulers, supposedly from his arms. The third slot went to the Vaishyas, or the traders, who were created from his thighs. At the bottom of the heap were the Shudras, who came from Brahma’s feet and did all the menial jobs.
The main castes were further divided into about 3,000 castes and 25,000 sub-castes, each based on their specific occupation.
Outside of this Hindu caste system were the achhoots – the Dalits or the untouchables.
How does caste work?
For centuries, caste dictated almost every aspect of Hindu religious and social life, with each group occupying a specific place in this complex hierarchy.
Rural communities were long arranged on the basis of castes – the upper and lower castes almost always lived in segregated colonies, the water wells were not shared, Brahmins would not accept food or drink from the Shudras, and one could marry only within one’s caste.
Ills of caste system
Social stratification on the basis of caste is the main reason behind various types of exploitation against so-called lower castes, especially those described as Sudras and Untouchables.
From the beginning of this system, sudras and untouchables were treated as slaves by so-called upper castes. They were allowed only to do menial works and all the lowly works but they were given no powers or privileges. All the privileges were for Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. All the leadership position in religion, polity, economy or society was assumed and taken hold off by two of the so-called upper castes; their political or social influence was always minimal.
However there were various social reformers such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy who devoted their lives for the upliftment of these downtrodden people, various reform movements were there to abolish the caste system. But it was so ingrained in our social fabric that it was next to impossible to change the situation on ground.
Thus, when India got independence and the Constitution was being framed, our founding fathers were of the opinion that such provisions should be added in the text which would lessen the ills of caste system and bring about equality in social field. Social justice was one of the main objectives of our Constitution.
First of all the Preamble to the Constitution envisions India as a nation where socio-economic and political justice is there; where there will be equality of status and opportunity and where dignity of the individual is secured.
The Constitution guarantees equality before law (Art. 14), and enjoins upon the State not to discriminate against any citizen on grounds of caste (Art. 15 (1)).
Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden (Art. 17). The Constitution mandates that no citizen shall, on grounds only of caste or race, be subjected to any disability and restriction (Art. 15 (2)).
It empowers the State to make provisions for reservation in educational institutions (Art. 15 (4) and (5)), and in appointments for posts in favour of SCs (Art. 16 (4), 16(4A), 16(4B) and Art. 335). Reservation of seats for SCs in the Lok Sabha is provided under Article 330, in the State Assemblies under Article 332 and in the Local Self-Governments bodies under Articles 243D and 340T.
Further, the Constitution guarantees protection from social injustice and all forms of exploitation (Art.46).
Acts to prohibit caste discrimination
To fulfil the Constitutional mandate several other Acts were also passed the Parliament to end the exploitative and discriminatory practices against so-called lower castes. A few of those legislations are as follows:
- The Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955, renamed as Protection of Civil Rights Act, in 1976.
- To check and deter atrocities against SCs, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 has also been enacted.
- Recently the Government has introduced a Bill in the Lok Sabha in the name ofthe Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Bill, 2013 which aims to prohibit the employment of manual scavengers, the manual cleaning of sewers and septic tanks without protective equipment, and the construction of insanitary latrines. The Bill seeks to rehabilitate manual scavengers and provide for their alternative employment.
It is another social welfare legislation whose objective is to bring manual scavengers or caste Valmikis orBhangis in social mainstream and to protect them from various socio-cultural and economic discrimination.
The biggest problem in abolishing and removing this menace from the society is the in general social acceptability of the same.