CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 01-October, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


1st October, 2107

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Religion and the Indian Constitution (The Hindu)


Context

This article explains the role of religion in Indian constitution

Question raised by author

How does transformative potential of the Constitution impact a society saturated by religion?

 Distinction between individual ethics of self-fulfilment and social norms of everyday conduct.

S.No.self-fulfilmentsocial norms
1.Framework for meaningful living and dying, say, a full life in this world,swarga(heaven) in another world, or freedom from recurrent births and deaths (moksha or nirvana), or obeying the commands of God.rituals and ceremonies of social interaction, but primarily norms governing interpersonal relations — with whom one should or should not interact, who one should or should not marry, with whom one should or should not dine, who is to perform which job in society, etc

Ethics and social norms

The connection between ethics and social norms was forged so tightly that they became part of a single deeply connected system. And the term ‘Religion’ was invented to refer to this whole. Thus, if a person chose to be, say, a Latin Christian, he instantly became part of this entire system.

Religion-centred social revolution in Europe meant

(a) breaking the monopoly of Christianity, presenting options other than dominant Christian ideas of self-fulfilment — pluralisation of ethics;

(b) loosening the connection between ethics and social norms, freeing social norms from Christian ethics, building norms of social equality that transcended religious identities — secularisation;

(c) fighting a church that blocked secularisation and pluralisation.

‘Religion’ in India

‘religion’ in two different senses

— ethical religion and social religion.

People have to fight for pluralisation of ethics

(a) We strive to conserve our immense pluralism of ethical religions, to act against any attempt at religious homogenisation or exclusion. This conservative function the Indian Constitution performs.

(b) By preventing a tight connection between social norms and ethical religion, the Indian Constitution also ensures that we do not have ‘Religion’ as originally conceived, something as totalising as Latin Christianity had been or Saudi Islam now is.

(c) Finally, its main objective is to destroy what is at the core of India’s dominant social religion — its deeply hierarchical caste system.


Blame it on the genes (The Hindu)


In news

Over a third of Indians carry a set of genetic variations that put themat higher risk of heart disease

About 35 to 40% of Indians carry a set of genetic variations which puts them at a higher risk of heart disease, finds a new study.

A team of Indian researchers at IIT-Madras (and in a collaborative effort) have discovered that carriers of a set of genetic variants in the chromogranin A (CHGA) gene called ‘CHGA promoter haplotype2’ may be at higher risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

Grounds of the study

The study is based on analysis of genomic DNA samples from over 750 individuals in the Indian population. The research findings have been published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry .

Though the CHGA promoter haplotype is present in other ethnic populations, it occurs more frequently in populations of South Asian ancestry.

Validation needed

  • These results need further validation in animal models as well as large-scale studies in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
  • “Basic research in cardiovascular biology is at a very nascent stage in India with only a handful of researchers working in this field.
  • This new study significantly contributes towards understanding molecular basis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

 

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