CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 05th-December, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


05th Dec, 2017

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Stand up against torture {Social issue}

(The Hindu)


Context

India has undermined its prestige by repeatedly promising — and failing — to ratify the Convention Against Torture

The Convention Against Torture (CAT) 

  • It came into force in 1987 and India signed it in 1997.
  • Today, the CAT has 162 state parties; 83 are signatories.
  • In refusing to ratify the CAT, India is in the inglorious company of Angola, the Bahamas, Brunei, Gambia, Haiti, Palau, and Sudan.

Why did India promised to ratify CAT?

In 2011, desiring to be appointed on the Human Rights Council (HRC) of the UN, India took the extraordinary step of voluntarily “pledging” to ratify the CAT.

But once India was appointed on the HRC, it forgot its commitment

Review after India formed NHRC

  • India’s NHRC had reported a significant number of torture cases involving police and security organisations.” The concluding recommendation of the Working Group was that India ought to expeditiously ratify the CAT and enact a Prevention Against Torture Act.
  • Again this year, at the universal periodical review, India reiterated “its commitment to ratify the CAT”.
  • India has been making promises but doesn’t seem intent on keeping them, much to the dismay of the countries attending the review proceedings.

Torture cases have escalated in India

Way forward

The Prevention of Torture Bill, 2010 was an excellent attempt by Parliament to draft new legislation. Unlike Indian law, which focusses on murder and broken bones (grievous hurt), torture was expanded to include food deprivation, forcible feeding, sleep deprivation, sound bombardment, electric shocks, cigarette burning, and other forms.

The Centre remains adamant to not ratify as it is deeply apprehensive of transparency and the involvement of the comity of nations in the post-ratification processes.

Basic Gyan

The Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.

It aims at protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”

Human Rights

It means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International covenants and enforceable by courts in India.

Torture

It is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict pain without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture.


Bail-in doubts {Economic Policy}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article talks about Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill, 2017

Introduced in Parliament this August

Highlights of the Bill

  • The Bill establishes a Resolution Corporation to monitor financial firms, anticipate risk of failure, take corrective action, and resolve them in case of such failure. The Corporation will also provide deposit insurance up to a certain limit, in case of bank failure.
  • The Resolution Corporation or the appropriate financial sector regulator may classify financial firms under five categories, based on their risk of failure. These categories in the order of increasing risk are: (i) low, (ii) moderate, (iii) material, (iv) imminent, and (v) critical.
  • The Resolution Corporation will take over the management of a financial firm once it is classified as ‘critical’. It will resolve the firm within one year (may be extended by another year).

Issue

There is fear that it will enable banks to be ‘bailed in’ by depositors’ funds rather than being ‘bailed out’ by taxpayers (or potential buyers).

Solution given by Government

The government has promised a Rs. 2.11-lakh crore recapitalisation plan for public sector banks that are now taking haircuts on defaulted loans being put through the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code.

Consideration by cabinet

  • The Bill proposes the scrapping of the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (set up in the early 1960s in the aftermath of the collapse of two banks), which guarantees repayment of bank deposits up to Rs. 1 lakh in case a bank is liquidated.
  • A new Resolution Corporation under the Finance Ministry will steer financial entities out of the woods and offer a similar cover for deposits.
  • The silence of the Bill on the extent of deposits to be guaranteed is a key source of concern, and may necessitate the need to revisit the existing Rs. 1 lakh deposit guarantee, which hasn’t been revised since 1993.

 The need for a specialised regime to cope with large financial firms 


Raja Mandala: After Indo-Pacific, the Eurasian idea {International Relation}

(The Hindu)


Context

Delhi has ignored Central Europe and neglected the EU. It’s time to correct the imbalance.

 Indo-Pacific is an idea that gained traction during 2017

  • The Chabahar port on the south-eastern coast of Iran, formally launched on Sunday by President Hassan Rouhani, opens up not just an alternative route to Afghanistan but also facilitates India’s overland connectivity with Central Eurasia.
  • Second was the annual gathering of the heads of government of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation in Sochi, Russia. Delhi, along with Islamabad, was accepted earlier this year as a full member of this organisation whose membership covers the heart of Eurasia but is named after a city on China’s Pacific coastline.
  • A third and equally consequential event last week in Budapest, Hungary went entirely unreported in India. It was the annual summit of an organisation called C-CEEC that promotes cooperation between China and 16 Central and East European Countries. It is more popularly known as “sixteen plus one”.

Concept of Eurasia is quite familiar to geographers

Marine bio-geographers use the Indo-Pacific to describe the large stretch of tropical waters from the east coast of Africa to the Western Pacific that has many common features.

For geologists, Eurasia refers to a tectonic plate that lies under much of what we know as Europe and Asia

Indo-Pacific

Japan’s Shinzo Abe  imagined the Indo-Pacific.

Australia was quick to adopt it. Jakarta, which along with Delhi dreamt of Asian unity and founded the non-aligned movement in the middle of the last century, was enthusiastic in its embrace of the Indo-Pacific.

Economic Region

With the rising involvement of US in the new growth areas of Asia, the idea of the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor was conceptualized during the US-India Strategic Dialogue of 2013, where Secretary of State John Kerry referred to the potential of the Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor, in transforming the prospects for development and investments as well as for trade and transit between the economies of South and Southeast Asia Indo-Pacific economic corridor

Where does India stand?

These countries will vary in the extent to which they seek to formalize Indo-Pacific alliances. While we might expect the U.S., Japan and Australia to be more proactive in seeking formal arrangements, India is likely to be less willing

Since the Indo-Pacific is primarily a maritime expanse, the presence and influence of the U.S. is a given, given the capabilities and reach of its blue-water navy.

Image result for indo pacific significance


 

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