CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 07-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


07 November, 2017

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Teaching ethics to aspiring civil servants {ethics}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article deals with importance of ethics in an civil servant.

Why in news?

The arrest in Chennai of an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer on probation, for cheating during the civil services examination, raises questions on future recruitments to the All India Services and the training of officers.

Crucial time period of this incidence

  • The nation was commemorating the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who stood for integrity in government and was considered the chief architect of post-Independence civil services.
  • The incident also took place some months after the government approved all the recommendations of the Seventh Pay Commission, which was done in the hope that more pay would mean greater levels of honesty and dedication on the part of public servants.

What is ethics?

The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: meta ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics.

Meta ethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Are they merely social inventions? Do they involve more than expressions of our individual emotions? Metaethical answers to these questions focus on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical judgments, and the meaning of ethical terms themselves.

Normative ethics takes on a more practical task, which is to arrive at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. This may involve articulating the good habits that we should acquire, the duties that we should follow, or the consequences of our behavior on others.

 Applied ethics involves examining specific controversial issues, such as abortion, infanticide, animal rights, environmental concerns, homosexuality, capital punishment, or nuclear war.

Why is Ethics important?

  • Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless.
  • There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success.
  • To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors.

What are the key elements of a proper Ethics?

  • A proper foundation of ethics requires a standard of value to which all goals and actions can be compared to. This standard is our own lives, and the happiness which makes them livable.
  • This is our ultimate standard of value, the goal in which an ethical man must always aim. It is arrived at by an examination of man’s nature, and recognizing his peculiar needs.
  • A system of ethics must further consist of not only emergency situations, but the day to day choices we make constantly. It must include our relations to others, and recognize their importance not only to our physical survival, but to our well-being and happiness.
  • It must recognize that our lives are an end in themselves, and that sacrifice is not only not necessary, but destructive.

Aiming high, looking far {Economic Policy}

(Indian Express)


Context

Five ways in which demonetisation made India a better habitat for formal job creation.

India doesn’t have a jobs problem — our unemployment rate of 4.9 per cent is not a fudge — but a wages problem.

If our problem is wages then India needs the higher productivity that comes from structural change: Formalisation, industrialisation, urbanisation, skilling and deep financial
markets.

How?

Demonetisation made India a better habitat for formal job creation for five reasons

Rs 18 lakh crore new lending capacity

  • Demonetisation has reduced cash with citizens; bank deposits have increased by somewhere between Rs 2.8-4.3 lakh crore.
  • Assuming Rs 3 lakh crore and applying an accepted 6 multiplier, demonetisation has created new lending capacity of Rs 18 lakh crore (36 times India’s Central government allocation to primary education).
  • Today banks are lazily lending this liquidity to the RBI but when they start doing their jobs well, this dry powder will boost investment and formal job creation.

7.6 crore new monthly digital transactions

  • Demonetisation exploded the number of digital payments on UPI/Bhim from 1 lakh in October 2016 to 7.7 crore in October 2017.
  • Prohibiting salary payments by cash and 50 lakh new bank accounts for labourers will fuel further adoption; digitisation is important for formalisation because it makes regulatory arbitrage and tax evasion difficult.
  • But the bigger upside of payment digitisation lies in its creation of the information infrastructure for cash-flow based lending; economist
  • Ridham Desai estimates that over 10 years digitisation could grow lending by Rs 243 lakh crore (largely to consumers and MSMEs) and e-commerce sales from $15 billion to $200 billion.

Third, 3 lakh crore new financial savings

  • Demonetisation has catalysed a savings shift away from gold (imports are down 20 per cent over the last year) and real estate (the toxic gap between rental yields and borrowing rates is finally narrowing).
  • The eight months after demonetisation saw mutual fund inflows of Rs 1.69 lakh crore (up 1700 per cent
  • Greater financialisation of savings creates a virtuous cycle for formal job creation because they deepen and broaden domestic capital markets whose institutions are more likely to fund entrepreneurs who create babies (companies that are small but will grow) rather than dwarfs .

2 per cent lower interest rates

  • Lowering interest rates is a policy priority and banks had been only passing on 50 per cent of lower policy rates to customers; in the year after demonetisation this has risen to 100 per cent.
  • India’s economic trajectory suggests interest rates could reduce another 3 per cent over time; sustained formal job creation needs the lower interest rates that come from macroeconomic stability, fiscal discipline, muted inflation expectations and an Independent Monetary Policy Committee.

Fifth, permanent damage to our sense of humour about the rule of law

  • Demonetisation targeted a less-cash society because cash is the primary tool of corruption.
  • Corruption enables transmission losses between how the law is written, interpreted, practised and enforced while India’s move to high productivity enterprises needs moving from deals to rules.

 


Lessons of October {Governance}

(Indian Express)


 Context

This article deals with October revolution and its consequences

October RevolutionImage result for October Revolution

This is also called Bolshevik Revolution, (Oct. 24–25 [Nov. 6–7, New Style], 1917), the second and last major phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which the Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia, inaugurating the Soviet regime.

Russian Revolution of 1917two revolutions, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power.

By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. The Russian Empire’s many ethnic minorities grew increasingly restive under Russian domination.

Image result for October RevolutionBut it was the government’s inefficient prosecution of World War I that finally provided the challenge the old regime could not meet. Ill-equipped and poorly led, Russian armies suffered catastrophic losses in campaign after campaign against German armies. The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: it showed Russia was no longer a military match for the nations of central and western Europe, and it hopelessly disrupted the economy.

Riots over the scarcity of food broke out in the capital, Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), on February 24 (March 8), and, when most of the Petrograd garrison joined the revolt, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate March 2 (March 15). When his brother, Grand Duke Michael, refused the throne, more than 300 years of rule by the Romanov dynasty came to an end.

What we learn from it?

  • The proletariat and the peasantry captured political power for the first time in human history with a revolutionary historic optimism: They had “nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win”
  • The history of the 20th century cannot be written without a central role for the October Revolution.
  • It can be the history of the Russian people and their heroism, sacrifices and suffering of a magnitude unknown in history.
  • The idea of the Revolution is one of the liberation of humanity from all kinds of exploitation and enslavement.
  •  It negates the capitalist system and constructs a new social order of socialism, which ends the exploitation of one human being by another

 The October Revolution changed the historical and ideological map of the world. It not only changed the fate of the Tsarist empire but also the world at large.

Lenin’s idea of imperialism also immensely contributed to the original studies of eastern societies. 

The Indian people are already confronting the crude implications of capitalist type of development.

Pollution of air, water and soil, pauperisation of peasants leading to suicides, excessive use of chemical fertilisers leading to the pollution of foodgrains, milk and vegetables, the widespread expansion of killer diseases, road and construction site accidents India is witnessing is a fallout of the country pursuing the capitalist way of development. 


 

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