CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 10-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


10 November, 2017

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For a wider cover {Environment}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article talks about measures than can be taken to stabilize climatic condition.

Targets

  • In 2015, India made a Bonn Challenge commitment to place into restoration 13 million hectares (Mha) of degraded land by 2020 and an additional 8 Mha by 2030.
  •  India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) have also pledged to sequester 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent additionally by 2030 through enhanced tree cover.

What can India do to achieve its climatic goal?

Initial government estimates suggest that to achieve this, India will need to extend tree cover on at least 28-34 million hectares, outside of the existing forest cover.

The Bonn Challenge

 A global effort

  • The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  • Underlying the Bonn Challenge is the forest landscape restoration (FLR) approach, which aims to restore ecological integrity at the same time as improving human well-being through multifunctional landscapes.
  •  FLR approach – will create approximately USD 84 billion per year in net benefits that could bring direct additional income opportunities for rural communities.
  • About 90 per cent of this value is potentially tradable, meaning that it encompasses market-related benefits.
  • The Bonn Challenge is not a new global commitment but rather a practical means of realizing many existing international commitments, including the CBD Aichi Target 15, the UNFCCC REDD+ goal, and the Rio+20 land degradation neutrality goal.
  •  It is an implementation vehicle for national priorities such as water and food security and rural development while contributing to the achievement of international climate change, biodiversity and land degradation commitments.

The NDC lays emphasis not only on carbon sequestration but also adaptation to climate change through a strengthened flow of benefits to local communities that are dependent on forests and agriculture for sustenance.

Tree-based interventionsImage result for The bonn challenge

The nation practises at least 35 types of agroforestry models that combine different trees that provide timber, fruits, fodder, fuel and fertilizers with food crops.

Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (ROAM)

 (ROAM) is being used in 40 countries to find the best methods for landscape restoration.

  • The tool includes rigorous analysis of spatial, legal and socio-economic data and draws on consultations with key stakeholders to determine the right type of interventions.
  • In India, this tool is being piloted in Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh.

The pecking order {Health Issue}

(The Hindu)


In news

Lack of hygiene and cruelty towards birds (poultry), such as confining them in battery cages, has impacted those who consume meat or eggs. The health hazards include a rise in diseases such as cancer.

The Law Commission of India, in its 269th report, drafted two new laws to end the cruelty to birds and pave the way for more compassionate processes in the poultry industry.

  • The rules are the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Egg Laying Hens)
  • Rules of 2017 and the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Broiler Chicken) Rules of 2017.

The rules mandate that a more natural environment of housing that allows hens to perch and move about freely is a better alternative to the existing practice of battery cages.

The report condemns practices such as the breaking of beaks and the killing of young male chicks in the poultry industry.

On certificationImage result for battery cage farming.

Certification of poultry farms by State animal husbandry departments.

  • The certification should make a distinction between produce obtained from cage free egg farming and that obtained from battery cage farming.
  • Egg Laying Hens Rules, the onus is on a farmer to immediately report the “outbreak or suspected outbreak of any zoonotic or contagious disease or infection to the local authority, the State Board and the State government.
  • Every farm shall have at least one room or enclosure for quarantining sick hens, or hens suspected to be sick”.

The risk of rising crude oil prices {Economic Policies}

(LiveMint)


Context

  • The situation is not alarming for India at the moment, but policymakers would do well to remain watchful
  • Large importer of crude oil, India benefited significantly from lower prices.
  • It helped contain inflation and had a favourable impact on both the fiscal and current account deficits. But a sharp reversal in prices can roll back some of those gains.

Why in news?

  • Oil prices touched a two-year high earlier this week and have gone up by about 14% over the last one month.
  • The expectation in the market is that prices could remain elevated
  • India witnessed a significant positive terms of trade shock when oil prices fell by over 50% between 2014 and 2015.

Effect of higher oil prices

  • They could have implications for growth, inflation, currency, current account deficit and fiscal deficit.
  • A similar rise worsens India’s current account balance by 0.4% of the GDP. Reduction in excise duty on petrol and diesel by Re1 per litre lowers collection to the tune of 0.08% of the GDP. Since the government raised excise duty when prices were falling,
  •  Revenue and economic activity due to teething problems with the goods and services tax, could worsen the outlook for India.
  •  The central bank has assumed the price of the Indian crude basket to average around $55 per barrel in the second half of the current fiscal.
  • If oil prices move up to $65 per barrel, inflation could go up by 30 basis points

 

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