CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 12-October, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


12th October, 2017

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The architecture of choice {Sustainable Development} 

(The Hindu)


Context

This article deals with behavioural economics i.e. How a choice is framed tends to influence choosers’ behaviour.

Why in news?

Recently Richard Thaler, won the Nobel Prize in Economics this year for his work in  behavioural economics.

What is behavioural economics?

  • Behavioral Economics is the study of psychology as it relates to the economic decision-making processes of individuals and institutions.
  • In an ideal world, people would always make optimal decisions that provide them with the greatest benefit and satisfaction.
  • In economics, rational choice theory states that when humans are presented with various options under the conditions of scarcity, they would choose the option that maximizes their individual satisfaction.
  • The final decision made will be the best choice for the individual.
  • The rational person has self-control and is unmoved by emotions and external factors and, hence, knows what is best for himself.

So behavioral economics explains that humans are not rational and are incapable of making good decisions.

Changing mindsets

The behaviour-informed approach to policy-making recognises that there are two systems of thinking.

Thinking automatically and

Thinking analytically and deliberatively.

E.g. If we present a question to few people in India what are you views on banning china products?

Most of people will reply quickly whether it is good or not i.e polarization can be seen in decision, it will be very quick.

Again if we present same question by just adding what can you do to ban the China products in India?

For answering this question people will have to think over it and we can see the polarization will decrease, the decision would not be quick as in first case.

A common refrain in India is that constructing toilets will not guarantee cleanliness and hygiene;

Since going out in the open is partly a social norm, the researchers tried to facilitate the building of a new social norm. A technique was used in which volunteers escorted the villagers out to the field where they put some food next to some human waste. The experiment involved watching the flies go back and forth. The villages were nudged into collectively rejecting open defecation by making a declaration in public.


Marriage no bar  {Social Justice}

(Indian Express)


Context

SC verdict criminalising sex with a minor wife is a warning: ‘Sanctity of marriage’ must not be misused to cover up rape.

In the aftermath of the December 16, 2012 Delhi gang-rape, India’s laws on sexual assault were overhauled. The legal reform, however, left one area untouched: Marital rape.

Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which defines the offence of rape, had an exception clause that said, “intercourse or sexual act by a man with his wife, not below 15 years, is not rape”

Amendment

Supreme Court struck down a part of this clause when it ruled that sexual intercourse with a minor wife is rape and a case can be registered against the husband on her complaint.

Section 375 in The Indian Penal Code

A man is said to commit “rape” who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the six following de­scriptions:—

(First) — Against her will.

(Secondly) —Without her consent.

(Thirdly) — With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested in fear of death or of hurt.

(Fourthly) —With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband, and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be law­fully married.

(Fifthly) — With her consent, when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupe­fying or unwholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.

(Sixthly) — With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age. Explanation.—Penetration is sufficient to constitute the sexual intercourse necessary to the offence of rape.

 


After GSTN, e-way bills could be another IT disaster in the making {Economic Policy}

(Livemint)


Why in news?

The GST Council on 6 October decided that the e-way bill system shall be introduced in a staggered manner with effect from January 2018 and shall be rolled out nationwide effective April 2018.

What is an e-Way Bill?Image result for e-Way Bill

e-way bill is a document required to be carried by a person in charge of the conveyance carrying any consignment of goods of value exceeding fifty thousand rupees as mandated by the Government in terms of section 68 of the Goods and Services Tax Act read with rule 138 of the rules framed thereunder. It is generated from the GST Common Portal by the registered persons or transporters who causes movement of goods of consignment before commencement of such movement.

What is consolidated e-Way Bill?

Consolidated e-way bill is a document containing the multiple e-way bills for multiple consignments being carried in one conveyance (goods vehicle). That is, the transporter, carrying the multiple consignments of various consignors and consignees in one vehicle is required to carry one consolidated e-way bill instead of carrying multiple e-way bills for those consignments.

What is the procedure?

  • Movement of goods worth more than Rs50,000 within or outside a state will require securing an e-way bill by prior online registration of the consignment.
  • To generate an e-way bill, the supplier and transporter will have to upload details on the GSTN (Goods and Services Tax Network) portal.
  • Once an e-way bill has been generated, a unique e-way bill number (EBN) shall be made available to the supplier, the recipient and the transporter on the common portal.

Objective

The aim is to eliminate state-wise documentation, ensure faster transit of goods by reducing the number of check-posts across the country, and curb corruption.

 


 

 

 

 

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