CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 15-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


15 November, 2017

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‘The aim is pollution control, not theatre’ {Environment}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article talks about strategy for preventing air pollution for long term

The air which we are breathing is toxic

  • Air pollution in Delhi has not occurred suddenly
  • The action which we are taking is rather very little or late
  • The kind of pollution that we are seeing now is in the entire region — it’s not just Delhi; Patna is more polluted. Anywhere you start placing pollution monitoring equipment, you realise that the air you breathe is toxic.

Cause of this air pollution

  • This time, Punjab and Haryana also contributed because of crop burning.
  • Last year the extreme level of pollution reached in January & February, and crop burning ends in November, so there is another cause to it
  • What we saw this time was a weather pattern which basically, they are saying, brought winds from Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
  • This brought a lot of dust, huge wind storms which collided with the wind system coming from the east which was bringing moisture. And that is deadly because the moisture locks in the dust and becomes a cloud.

Governments approach to reduce it

Emergency response

Schools were closed

Odd & even scheme for vehicle on the roads of Delhi

According to IIT-M (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology), Pune, this response plan has reduced pollution levels by about 15% (compared) to what it would have been over the weekend

Long term approach

Court asked the Environment Ministry to come up with what is now called the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP)

 Problems 

the forecasting data were very poor. On November 6, we had no indication of the kind of cloud and the weather pattern that would change. It was on 7th, when pollution spiked, that we were told that pollution levels are high

We have told the court is that we need a better system and protocol in place to inform people about spiked pollution levels.

For instance, one of the big issues of GRAP is that when pollution spikes — say, in Paris — a protocol is put in place and you ramp up public transport. Paris makes public transport free

Emergency plans are not substitutes for long-term measures. We need both.


Human Rights And Wrongs {Rights Issue}

(Indian Express)


Context

National Human Rights Commission must live up to its mandate in letter and spirit

 In news

In a recent case in the Supreme Court, the National Human Rights Commisson (NHRC) referred to itself as “a toothless tiger”. NHRC may plead before the Supreme Court about its limitations, the public perception about it has deterioratedImage result for nhrc

Issue

A case in point is that of Khurram Parvez, a human rights defender from Kashmir who was barred at the Delhi airport from travelling to Geneva on September 14, 2016, where he was to attend the United Nation Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and meet representatives of UN bodies concerning the situation in Kashmir. On September 15, 2016, on his return to Srinagar, Khurram was arrested under the Public Safety Act (PSA).

On September 16, 2016, Human Rights Defenders Alert (HRDA) approached the NHRC to intervene in the case through an independent investigation.

Result

  • Ignoring the recent order of the Delhi High Court in Priya Pillai’s case, the NHRC called for reports within four weeks from the Director General of Police of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and the Foreigners’ Regional Registration Office in New Delhi.
  • It did not issue a notice to the Bureau of Immigration, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), which is also its parent ministry.
  • The NHRC received the response only after 12 weeks on December 13, 2016. However, the response was not submitted by the main respondents but by the joint director of the Intelligence Bureau (IB).

The question here is about the nature of the failure of the NHRC: Was it a deliberate failure or an inability to understand basic human rights laws and standards? 

National Human Rights Commission of India

  • The Rights Commission(NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
  • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).
  • The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”.
  • “Human Rights” means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
  • “Commission” means the National Human Rights Commission constituted under section of All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights known as Human rights, as commonly understood, are the rights that every human being is entitled to enjoy freely irrespective of his religion, race, caste, sex and nationality, etc.

The rich know how to sidestep responsibilities{Environment}

(LiveMint)


Context

The Paradise Papers show how the wealthy and powerful use tax havens—some do it legitimately, others for re-routing illegal wealth—to avoid or evade tax liabilities

Behaviour of rich nations

The rich countries have been trying every trick to avoid  Paris meeting commitments on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, arresting climate change and funding developing and poor countries to help counter the effects of climate change.

The US, European Union and some other rich countries—including Australia, Canada and Japan—have blocked efforts by developing nations to review the developed world’s performance vis-à-vis commitments.

Developing nationsRelated image

These have been blaming the rich for sidestepping commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol, which placed mandatory emission reduction targets to be achieved during 2012-15.

Later, through what is known as the Doha Amendments, the target date was extended to 2020. Developing countries have been arguing that to finalize the rule-book for the Paris Agreement, as the successor to the Kyoto Protocol, it is necessary to understand the achievements so far.

Financial Assistance to developing nations

For instance, as part of the Copenhagen Accord of 2009, the developed countries pledged to provide developing nations with $30 billion during 2010-12 and $100 billion every year till 2020 to help mitigate climate change effects.

But, as data shows, the rich are not only in breach but have been dissembling: Apart from reneging on their promise, they have also been padding funding data.

World Bank and International Monetary Fund

  • The Bank released a document in September titled “Maximising Finance For Development: Leveraging The Private Sector For Growth And Sustainable Development”. This builds on a preceding March 2017 document called “Forward Look—A Vision For The World Bank Group In 2030, Progress And Challenges”.
  • Only where market solutions are not possible through sector reform and risk mitigation would official and public resources be applied.” Currently focused on infrastructure, the approach will be later extended to financial services, healthcare, education and agribusiness.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensusthat (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (Art. 2)

 Read More …….What was Paris Agreement?


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  • Jitendra Yadav

    Thanks

  • harrison wells

    Very informative sir..

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