CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 16-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


16 November, 2017

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After the tsunami {International Relation}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article discusses about formation of Quad

Indian navy was used after Tsunami

  • On the morning after Christmas 2004, the staggering death toll (eventually more than 230,000) from the tsunami was still unknown, when a call from Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa to Indian envoy Nirupama Rao made it clear that island nation needed urgent humanitarian assistance.
  • In Washington DC, Indian Ambassador Ronen Sen was also being asked by the U.S. government how much India could help further afield, as the tsunami had wreaked havoc across the area now called the Indo-Pacific.

India’s Effort

  • Within 12 hours, Indian naval helicopters were in Colombo with relief material. By the next day, two Indian naval ships were in Galle and Trincomalee, while three others were despatched to Male.
  • Two more, INS Khukri and INS Nirupak, were converted into hospital ships and sent to the worst hit-country, Indonesia.
  •  In all, about 32 Indian ships and 5,500 troops were involved in the international relief effort, not to mention the work the armed forces carried out in Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Birth of Quad

  • On December 29, U.S. President George W. Bush announced that India, the U.S., Japan and Australia would set up an international coalition to coordinate the massive effort required: to rescue those trapped in the waters, rush relief, and rehabilitate those made homeless, and to restore power, connectivity lines as well as infrastructure like ports and roads.
  • By mid-January the coalition handed over charge to the UN, but while their immediate mission had ended, it led to the birth of a new framework: the Quadrilateral, or Quad.

What is a tsunami?

  • The name Tsunami, from the Japanese words tsu meaning harbour and nami meaning wave, is now used internationally to describe a series of waves travelling across the ocean. These waves have extremely long wavelengths, up to hundreds of kilometres between wave crests in the deep ocean.
  • In the past, tsunamis have been referred to as ‘tidal waves’ or ‘seismic sea waves’. The term ‘tidal wave’ is misleading. Even though a tsunami’s impact upon a coastline is dependent on the tidal level at the time a tsunami strikes, tsunamis are unrelated to the tides.

How is a tsunami formed?Related image

A tsunami can be formed in a number of different ways, but usually there are three things that have to happen.

  • An earthquake must measure at least 7.0 on the Richter scale, the sea bed must be lifted or lowered by the earthquake, and the epicentre of the earthquake must be close to the Earth’s surface.
  • Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, landslides, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water can potentially generate a tsunami.
  • While normal waves are caused by the winds as well as the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is always caused by the displacement of a large body of water.
  • Tsunamis are sometimes called tidal waves, although this term is not popular among experts as they are not actually influenced by the tides at all.

What are the warning signs of a tsunami?

The number one warning sign of a tsunami in Australia is the advice you may receive from the media (on radio or television) or from police and other emergency services. Follow their instructions immediately.

The following are natural signs of a tsunami that you may, but not always, experience when you are near the coast in Australia or overseas. If you notice any of these three warning signs take action.

  • A shaking of the ground in coastal regions may reflect the occurence of a large undersea earthquake nearby that may generate a tsunami.
  • As a tsunami approaches shorelines, the sea may, but not always, withdraw from the beach (like a very low and fast tide) before returning as a fast-moving tsunami.
  • A roaring sound may precede the arrival of a tsunami.

The rise of the bots {Science & Technology}

(The Hindu)


What are bots?

A bot is a computer programme designed to work automatically. It is mainly used to gather information on the Internet or perform repetitive jobs.

Imagine texting a number to order pizza and having it delivered without ever talking to a real human — that’s what bots are all about. Specifically, a bot is an application that performs an automated task, such as setting an alarm, telling you the weather or searching online.

E.g.

Siri and Cortana are bots

Where did the idea for bots come from?Image result for bots

Bots have been around for more than 50 years. With the recent global boom in mobile messaging apps, such as WeChat, Facebook Messenger and Slack, they’re seen as increasingly relevant. They’ve likely been right under your nose. The first bots on Twitter starting rolling out in 2006.

What can bots do?

Today’s bots can help us order food, shop for clothes, save money and find restaurants. For example, Digit helps you manage your money by showing your bank balance, upcoming bills and helping you save money through text messages. The Hi Poncho chatbot available in Facebook Messenger tells you the weather around you.

Many bots are programmed to act like humans when you talk to them so it feels like asking a person for help instead of just typing in a search engine.

Are they good or bad?

Merits

Used as web crawlers, as cyber security solution major Norton has explained in its blog, adding that another good use is automatic interaction using instant messaging, instant relay chat or other web interfaces.

Dynamic interaction with websites is yet another way bots are used for positive purposes.

Demerits

A malicious bot as self-propagating malware that infects its host and connects back to a central server(s). Malicious bots can gather passwords, log keystrokes, obtain financial information, relay spam, and exploit back doors opened by viruses and worms, among other things.

How do you know your computer is infected?

According to Norton, symptoms such as a slow Internet or crashing of computer for no apparent reason, pop-up windows and advertisements appearing even when a web browser is not being used, friends and family receiving mails you did not send, or a fan going into “overdrive” when the device is idle may mean that your system is infected.

What are the precautions and remedies?

It is important to have a good anti-malware software. All softwares should be updated and system updates should not be ignored.


Parenting The iPad Generation {Science and Technology}

(Indian Express)


Context

Technology can be a great learning tool for kids, but only if parents use it right.

This article explains the impact on children by using smart phones or laptop for long duration

What is the news?

Unchecked and unfiltered, screen-time can be dangerous for kids. It has clear health implications, in that it can affect sleep, or prevent kids from engaging in physical activity, thereby contributing to India’s rising childhood obesity rates.

How children get trapped in wrong content over Internet?

  • Young children don’t have the ability to spot the differences between advertisements, or sponsored content, and “real” content.
  •  They lack the cognitive sophistication and experience to think critically about what they’re seeing and evaluate its veracity.
  • And they are keenly observing and rapidly absorbing the social and moral messages they are seeing on those screens, leaving them vulnerable to picking up and perpetuating stereotypes and biases.

Global expert consensus is that screen-time’s impact — and whether it will ultimately harm a child or help her — is determined by content and context. Content is about what, specifically, kids are watching. Context is about how they’re engaging with what they’re watching.

When it can be helpful?

Kids’ content is most beneficial when it’s accompanied by an active discussion or when it is supporting an activity offline. In other words, when there is a level of parental explanation and mentorship around what kids are seeing and hearing.

  • A child is more capable of: handling rapid cybersearches, making quick decisions, developing visual acuity, and multitasking.
  • Games help develop peripheral vision.
  • Visual motor tasks like tracking objects or visually searching for items is improved.
  • Internet users tend to use decision-making and problem-solving brain regions more often.

How Do Smartphones Affect Childhood Psychology?

Smartphones and tablets have now replaced basketballs and baby dolls on a child’s wish list.

In a recent publication, it was noted that 56 percent of children between the ages of 10 to 13 own a smartphone. While that fact alone may come as a shock, it is estimated that 25 percent of children between the ages of 2 and 5 have a smartphone.

 Few recommendations to make the most of time spent on a smartphone

  • Children under two should not be using screens or electronic devices.
  • Play alongside your children and interact with them face-to-face.
  • Make sure smartphones don’t interfere with opportunities for play and socializing.
  • Limit screen use to one or two hours a day. This includes smartphones, TV, computers, etc.
  • It is all right to use a smartphone as an occasional treat.
  • Model positive smartphone use.
  • Encourage family meals and communication.
  • Look for quality apps that promote building vocabulary, mathematical, literacy, and science concepts.
  • Keep smartphones out of the bedrooms.

 


 

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