CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 19-August, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams



1.The disease that just won’t go away

The Hindu


This article talks about a  parasitic disease called  visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar in the Indian sub-continent, is caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum (= Leishmania chagasii), and is a potentially fatal disease with a worldwide distribution, in Asia, East Africa, South America and the Mediterranean region.

The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence “visceral”), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection.

This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide

How this disease is caused?

The parasites are transmitted through the bite of female phlebotomine sand flies and in the human host are obligate intracellular parasites of the reticuloendothelial system, surviving and multiplying in different macrophage populations.

DiagnosisImage result for kala azar

The gold standard for diagnosis is visualization of the amastigotes in splenic aspirate or bone marrow aspirate. This is a technically challenging procedure that is frequently unavailable in areas of the world where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic.

Serological testing is much more frequently used in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. A 2014 Cochrane review evaluated different rapid diagnostic tests. One of them (the rK39 immunochromatographic test) gave correct, positive results in 92% of the people with visceral leishmaniasis and it gave correct, negative results in 92% of the people who did not have the disease. A second rapid test (called latex agglutination test) gave correct, positive results in 64% of the people with the disease and it gave correct, negative results in 93% of the people without the disease. Other types of tests have not been studied thoroughly enough to ascertain their efficacy.

Prevention

There are no vaccines or preventive drugs for visceral leishmaniasis. The most effective method to prevent infection is to protect from sand fly bites. To decrease the risk of being bitten, these precautionary measures are suggested

Outdoors

  • Avoid outdoor activities, especially from dusk to dawn, when sand flies generally are the most active.
  • When outdoors (or in unprotected quarters), minimize the amount of exposed (uncovered) skin to the extent that is tolerable in the climate. Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and socks; and tuck your shirt into your pants.
  • Apply insect repellent to exposed skin and under the ends of sleeves and pant legs. Follow the instructions on the label of the repellent. The most effective repellents generally are those that contain the chemical DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide).

Indoors

  • Stay in well-screened or air-conditioned areas.
  • Keep in mind that sand flies are much smaller than mosquitoes and therefore can get through smaller holes.
  • Spray living/sleeping areas with an insecticide to kill insects.
  • If you are not sleeping in a well-screened or air-conditioned area, use a bed net and tuck it under your mattress. If possible, use a bed net that has been soaked in or sprayed with a pyrethroid-containing insecticide. The same treatment can be applied to screens, curtains, sheets, and clothing (clothing should be retreated after five washings).

Treatment

The traditional treatment is with pentavalent antimonials such as sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate. Resistance is now common in India, and rates of resistance have been shown to be as high as 60% in parts of Bihar, India.

Chemotherapy remains the most important element in the control of anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis.


 2. No proof required: Madness in monetary policy

Indian express


 In this article author discusses about the flaws in our monetary policy which is the cause for inflation.

In India we have a monetary authority that admits to not understanding inflation — but persists in damaging an already weak economy because it does not understand it

Monetary Policy in India

Monetary Policy of India is formulated and executed by Reserve Bank of India to achieve specific objectives. It refers to that policy by which central bank of the country controls(i) the supply of money, and (ii) cost of money or the rate of interest, with a view to achieve particular objectives.

 Main elements of the monetary policy of India

  • It regulates the stocks and the growth rate of money supply.
  • It regulates the entire banking system of the economy.
  • It determines the allocation of loans among different sectors.
  • It provides incentives to promote savings and to raise the savings-income ratio.
  • It ensures adequate availability of credit for growth and tries to achieve price stability.

Objectives

  • To Regulate Money Supply in the Economy
  • To Attain Price Stability
  • To promote Economic Growth
  • To Promote saving and Investment
  • To Control Business Cycles.

 Relationship between the Indian monsoon and the RBI’s repo rate

 India is a self-sufficient country when it comes to food. We are the top producers of a number of commodities.

This includes rice and wheat, our staple food. But, only if the monsoons are normal. A good monsoon will mean a good crop output for farmers.

A bumper output will mean that the food supply will be enough to meet demand. This in turn will lead to crop prices remaining stable.

If the demand is higher, prices might even fall. All of this will boil down to the fact that inflation in the country will remain stable. For the economy to grow, it is important that inflation does not move up.

 Why No Rain Is a Pain?

During a bad monsoon, crops that come up for sale are lower than usual. This means that demand will be far greater than supply. When demand is more than supply, prices start moving up. When food prices go up, inflation naturally will be higher.

How does the RBI affect Indian economy?

It prints money, it can increase or decrease the money supply of an economy by printing money, It has control over inflation. It decides what should be the fraction of total deposits which is to be held with commercial banks . This is why Indian banking system is known as fractional reserve system. Indirectly RBI is deciding how much amount of money will be in the hand of general public ,so demand for money may decline or rise which have further effect on aggregate demand .In order to push up the growth of Indian economy RBI can do so.

Recent example is : Demonisation policy initiated under BJP government in which the old currency is no more legal to be accepted by RBI and in any part of the world

 


 

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