CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 17th-December, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


17th Dec, 2017

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Intrauterine Insemination: A systematic review of a Successful Cycle {Health Issue}


Context

This article talks about a successful conception using Intrauterine insemination (IUI) method.

What is infertility?

Infertility, as defined by The International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART), is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person’s capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with his/her partner.

Possible condition of infertility

  • The infertility can be in both men or women
  • There may be other several reasons for infertility such as
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Premature menopauseis when a woman’s period stops before she turns 40.
  • Anovulationmeans there is no egg released from the ovary
  • The other cases are caused by a mixture of male and female problems or by unknown problems.

What increases a man’s risk of infertility?

  • Heavy alcohol use
  • Drugs
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Age
  • Environmental toxins, including pesticides and lead
  • Health problems such as mumps, serious conditions like kidney disease, or hormone problems
  • Medicines
  • Radiation treatment and chemotherapy for cancer

What causes infertility in women?

Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

Less common causes of fertility problems in women include

  • Blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy
  • Physical problems with the uterus
  • Uterine fibroids, which are non-cancerous clumps of tissue and muscle on the walls of the uterus.

What is intrauterine insemination (IUI)?

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an infertility treatment that is often called artificial insemination. In this procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.

IUI is often used to treat

  • Mild male factor infertility
  • Women who have problems with their cervical mucus
  • Couples with unexplained infertility

Other method of treatment

Assisted reproductive technology (ART)

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a group of different methods used to help infertile couples. ART works by removing eggs from a woman’s body. The eggs are then mixed with sperm to make embryos. The embryos are then put back in the woman’s body.


IPO fundraising: A blockbuster year; all you need to know at a glance {Business & Economy}


Context

The year 2017 saw India Inc notching the highest-ever fundraising through initial public offerings (IPOs) as firms involved in different businesses, from insurance to infrastructure, went to the primary market to raise funds.

Highlights

  • They had raised Rs 66,000 crore through IPOs till November.
  • Most IPOs and QIPs were in the nature of exit or sell-downs by existing investors or for balance-sheet strengthening.
  •  SME IPOs were the highlight of the year as 122 companies had raised Rs 1,520 crore till November.

What is IPO?Image result for IPO fundraising

An initial public offering, or IPO, is the very first sale of stock issued by a company to the public. Prior to an IPO the company is considered private, with a relatively small number of shareholders made up primarily of early investors (such as the founders, their families and friends) and professional investors (such as venture capitalists or angel investors).

The public, on the other hand, consists of everybody else – any individual or institutional investor who wasn’t involved in the early days of the company and who is interested in buying shares of the company. Until a company’s stock is offered for sale to the public, the public is unable to invest in it.

Why Have an IPO?

Why go public, then? Going public raises a great deal of money for the company in order for it to grow and expand. Private companies have many options to raise capital – such as borrowing, finding additional private investors, or by being acquired by another company. But, by far, the IPO option raises the largest sums of money for the company and its early investors. Some of the largest IPO’s to date are:

  • Alibaba Group (BABA) in 2014 raising $25 billion
  • American Insurance Group (AIG) in 2006 raising $20.5 billion
  • VISA (V) in 2008 raising $19.7 billion
  • General Motors (GM) in 2010 raising $18.15 billion
  • Facebook (FB) in 2012 raising $16.01 billion

Towards sound labour market governance {Indian Economy}


Context

The globalisation debate has brought informality on board and the ILO in a series of policy innovations has proceeded to construct a paradigm of the world of work which involves respect for fundamental rights, decent work, sound labour market governance and a gradual progression to a formal and decent workplace.

What is informal sector?

Informality is endemic to firms in developing countries. For example, more than 80 percent of industrial employment in India is estimated to be in unregistered establishments. It is often asserted that despite obvious gains from registering, such as better access to credit, firms choose to stay informal in order to avoid the burden of inflexible regulation

It is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in the gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP) of a country.

The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.

Consequence to economy

Imposes costs to the economy in terms of loss of revenue for the exchequer and lower income among other more severe forms of insecurities relating to health and employment.

The Decline in Informality Depended on Labor Laws

In India both the central and state governments have jurisdiction over labor legislation. This has caused the states to differ markedly in their labor regulation, a fact that has been linked to growth divergence across Indian states.

In a prominent study, Besley and Burgess (2004) used data on state-level amendments to India’s common labor law to classify each state as proemployer, neutral, or pro-worker, with pro-employer states having the most flexible labor laws. They found that amendments in the direction of rigidity were associated with lower state-level growth

How Deregulation Improves Productivity

Barriers to entry allow inefficient producers to survive. Recent research shows that delicensing played a major role in increasing productivity in India’s formal manufacturing sector, with estimates of productivity gains in the order of 32 percent in the deregulated industries (Chari 2009).

This productivity gain in the formal sector happened in two ways. First, relaxation of capacity expansion allowed the more efficient producers to expand, which in turn forced the least efficient firms to shut down. Second, relaxation of entry increased the level of competition in the formal sector

The Costs and Benefits of Labor Regulation

Most developing countries have a large population working in small, informal establishments or in self-employment. Given the extremely low productivity levels observed in the informal sector, there is a great deal of interest in designing policies that encourage a reallocation of employment to formal enterprises.

The findings described in this note suggest that removing regulatory barriers to industrial entry can be successful not only in stimulating growth in the formal sector, but also in reducing informality.

This happens mainly because rising labor demand in the formal sector induces people to leave less profitable self-employment.


 

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