CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 20th-December, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


20th Dec, 2017

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‘AIs won’t really rule us, they will be very interested in us’{Science & Tech}

(The Hindu)


Most exciting AI project under way in the world

To build a general-purpose AI that can learn to do multiple things. It must learn the learning algorithm itself (that can help it master chess as well as drive a car, for instance) — true meta-learning, as it’s called.

What is

?

  • It’s a technique in speech recognition and translation that many major companies — Facebook, Amazon, Samsung — are using
  •  It’s a recurrent network, a little bit like in the brain. The brain has a hundred billion neurons and each is connected to 10,000 others. That’s a million-billion connections and each of them has a ‘strength’ that indicates how much one neuron influences another.
  • Then there are feedback connections that make it (the network) like a general-purpose computer and you can feed in videos through the input neurons, acoustics through microphones, tactile information through sensors, and some are output neurons that control finger muscles. Initially all connections are random and the network, perceiving all this, outputs rubbish.

What are AI’s potential to destroy jobs?

countries with a high per capita presence of industrial robots — Japan, South Korea, Germany. They all have low unemployment rates. This was because lots of new, unanticipated jobs came up.

there’s a job where people make money being YouTube bloggers? Or selling Apps? Some make a lot of money, some don’t, but it’s still a lot of new jobs. It’s easy to see what jobs will be lost but harder to predict what new ones will emerge


Transit gambit{Economic Policy}

(The Hindu)


Context

The Centre needs to do more to ease theshift to e-way bills for transport of goods

In news

Starting February 1, all inter-State movement of goods worth over Rs. 50,000 will be tracked with the introduction of the e-way bill system under the GST regime.

What is an e-way bill?

  • E-way bill is an electronic way bill for movement of goods which can be generated on the GSTN (common portal). A ‘movement’ of goods of more than Rs 50,000 in value cannot be made by a registered person without an e-way bill.
  • E-way bill will also be allowed to be generated or canceled through SMS.
  • When an e-way bill is generated a unique e-way bill number (EBN) is allocated and is available to the supplier, recipient, and the transporter.

When should an e-way bill be generated?

E-way bill will be generated when there is movement of goods –

  • In relation to a ‘supply’
  • For reasons other than a ‘supply’ ( say a return)
  • Due to inward ‘supply’ from an unregistered person

What is a ‘supply’ in case of an e-way bill?Image result for eway bill

For this purpose, a supply may be either of the following

  • A supply made for a consideration (payment) in the course of business
  • A supply made for a consideration (payment) which may not be in the course of business
  • A supply without consideration (without payment)

In simpler terms,  the term ‘supply’ usually means a

  1. Sale – sale of goods and payment made
  2. Transfer – branch transfers for instance
  3. Barter/Exchange – where the payment is by goods instead of in money

Therefore, e-way bills must be generated on the common portal for all these types of movements.

Who can generate an e-way bill?

  • E-way bill must be generated when there is a movement of goods of more than Rs 50,000 in value to or from a Registered Person. A Registered person or the transporter may choose to generate and carry e-way bill even if the value of goods is less than Rs 50,000.
  • Unregistered persons or their transporters may also choose to generate an e-way bill. This means than an e-way bill can be generated by both registered and unregistered persons. However, where a supply is made by an unregistered person to a registered person, the receiver will have to ensure all the compliances are met as if they were the supplier. 

Can e-way bills be used during return filing?

Yes. The information provided in Part A of the Form GST EWB-01 can be used for preparing GSTR-1.

What is the validity of an e-way bill?

An e-way bill is valid for periods as listed below, which is based on the distance traveled by the goods. Validity is calculated from the date and time of generation of e-way bill-

DistanceValid fromValid for
Up to 100kmDate & time at which e-way bill is generated1 day
For every 100 km after thatDate & time at which e-way bill is generatedAn extra day

 


Privacy in cyberspace{Cyber Security}

(Indian Express)


Context

In this article the author has recommended few ways to improve data protection along with growing digitalization

Government’s strategy to frame policy for data protection

  • The Committee does a commendable job on a number of counts. It has covered a wide range of issues pertaining to data protection and privacy.
  • While it has looked at the issues from the prism of what is relevant in India, it has also brought in perspectives from other countries.

Ways to strengthen the Committee’s final report

  • First, it would be useful to anchor the report in some core principles. The Committee must lay out the normative framework which we, as a nation, must aspire to with respect to data protection.
  • Second, it would be important for the Committee to state that privacy is not just a right or a moral obligation, but it has value to the economy. It enhances trust and increases voluntary participation in the digital economy. In some places, the report appears to imply that while the ideal is important, practical considerations demand that we settle for less.
  •  The ultimate control of data must reside with the individuals who generate it; they should be enabled to use, restrict or monetise it as they wish. Therefore, laws should enable the right kind of innovation — one that is user-centric and privacy-protecting.
  • Third, while the Committee has proposed the creation of a strong Data Protection Authority (DPA), there are some aspects that can make such an agency effective. Some of the recommendations, such as applying the law to both government and private data collectors, fines against violators and direct compensation to complainants, are progressive.

 

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