CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 22-August, 2017
Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams
In this article a case study of Zika virus has been described
Clinical study of Zika virus on pregnant women
Suan-Sin Foo from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and others tested whole blood samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women using both the African and Asian Zika virus strains.
While the two strains share closely similarity (90%), the presence of African virus in certain blood cells was much higher than the Asian strain. However, the Asian strain showed greater ability to trigger immune suppression, which allows the virus to replicate and even possibly sneak into the womb and cause more foetal damage.
Particular white blood cells called CD14 are the primary target cells for Zika infection. The CD14 cells turn into another kind of white blood cells (macrophages) that swallow bacteria and viruses and keep the body healthy. But the researchers found that the Asian Zika virus strain was pushing the CD14 cell to become a kind of macrophage that suppresses the immune system.
During pregnancy, the body naturally suppresses the immune system to protect the growing foetus from being rejected by the womb. The reduced immunity makes pregnant women highly susceptible to Zika infection during this period.
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.
Signs and Symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
Zika virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes mosquitoes usually bite during the day, peaking during early morning and late afternoon/evening.
- Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily byAedes
- People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Links to other neurological complications are also being investigated.
2.Recasting the steel frame
In this article author talks about the required change in Indian bureaucracy and its governance
The bureaucracy needs to embrace lateral entry, technology, and the ‘perform or perish’ culture
Why there is need for such discussion?
It is impossible to run a 21st century economy with a 19th century bureaucracy using 18th century rules. The “New India” that is under way also needs independence from bad bureaucracy, not necessarily from all bureaucracy, for any state would need to be run by some set of rules, by some set of people
What is a ‘Bureaucracy’
Bureaucracy refers to a specialized system and process of maintaining uniformity or authority within an organization. Bureaucratic processes are most common in large organizations or governments and administer formal rules of internal behavior.
Bureaucracies have four key characteristics that make their resemblance to beehives all the more apparent.
- A clear hierarchy – Bureaucracies have a firm chain of command. Every worker has his or her own place in the chain, and everyone’s work is overseen by someone on the next level up. Power flows down from the top of the hierarchy and diminishes as it approaches the bottom. Just think of the beehive. The queen bee stands at the top, and each worker bee or drone has its own place in the hive’s chain of command.
- Specialization – Everyone in a bureaucracy has a specific job to do and often becomes an expert at it. Bees have specific jobs, too, collecting pollen, making honey, or populating the hive.
- A division of labor – In a bureaucracy, nearly every task is broken down into its component parts, and different people work on different parts of the task. Together they get the job done, just like bees in a hive who divide their labor for maximum efficiency.
- A set of formal rules – These so-called standard operating procedures are the clear, written instructions for each specialized job at every level of the hierarchy. Workers who follow them can be sure that they are on the same page as their colleagues and are doing their jobs properly. According to beekeepers, bees, too, have a sophisticated system of communication that keeps their hives running smoothly.
The civil services need to bring few fundamental changes
Specific clauses under All India Services and Central Services Conduct Rules have been invoked to sack officers on grounds of incompetence and/or corruption.
The black sheep should be identified and sent home, with public opprobrium.
Lateral entry into the higher civil services should be welcomed but with some caveats.
Alongside introducing lateral entry, there is a need to “put to pasture” those due to whom administrative rigor mortis has set in — if someone is not found suitable in the IAS/IRS/IPS/IFS after about 15 years, i.e. at the Joint Secretary level, shift them out to non-crucial posts or give them their lifetime pension today and send them home now.
Infuse more and more technology into every touch point where a citizen interacts with the government.
At 70, India needs independence from bad bureaucracy and inane processes and meaningless forms — not necessarily from “good” bureaucracy, which in every country, system and time has been the harbinger of positive change.
3.The Word and its meanings
Muslims can interpret the Quran without questioning its divine authorship
In this article author explains various examples how Quran can be interpretated
The Quran is viewed to be the scriptural foundation of Islam and is believed by Muslims to have been revealed, without issue, to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. Criticism of the Quran has frequently occurred since western scholarship has looked to decipher, understand and verify the claims of Islamic thought as stated in the Quran.
According to Islamic tradition, the Quran is the literal word of God as recited to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Muhammad, according to tradition, recited perfectly what the angel Gabriel revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. Muslims believe that the wording of the Quranic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad in the years 610–632.
The presumptions here are: Reform in Muslim societies is possible only if the Quran is not considered a divine book, and Islamic reform means a rejection of Quranic verses that are “bad”. The second presumption is, in fact, based on the premise that there are bad verses in the Quran.
Anand’s arguments (Author of Let’s Talk to the Book )— which are based on the articles he has quoted — are nothing more than problematic interpretations of a few Quranic verses. He seems to think that there is no other way of understanding these verses and that wrong interpretations of the Quran negate its reliability as a source of divine guidance.
4.A fundamental right to create jobs
This article deals with entrepreneurship
Prime Minister Narendra Modi implored the youth to generate employment rather than just seek jobs. He listed out several initiatives of his government to facilitate entrepreneurship. These include access to credit, ease of getting clearances, and skill development.
Modi also called for a collective resolve to build a “New India” by 2022. A secure, prosperous and strong nation cannot be built without providing every able-bodied individual an opportunity to create jobs.
To ensure that jobs are created on a large scale, we need to treat the freedom to create jobs on a par with other freedoms guaranteed under the Constitution.
Government role in entrepreneurship
Startup India programme
Startup India campaign is based on an action plan aimed at promoting bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage start ups with jobs creation. The campaign was first announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his 15 August 2015 address from the Red Fort.
It is focused on to restrict role of States in policy domain and to get rid of “license raj” and hindrances like in land permissions, foreign investment proposal, environmental clearances. It was organized by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)
It is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is more often than not, initially a small business, offering a product, process or service for sale or hire. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs.
Examples of Entrepreneurs
Eddie hopes that his entrepreneurial gamble will pay off as well as the gambles of other well-known entrepreneurs, such as:
- Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft. There are probably not many people that have not been touched by one of his products, such as Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Office and Internet Explorer.
- Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple computers, which produces Macs, iPods and iPhones, as well as Apple TV.
- Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook.
- Pierre Omidyar, founder of eBay.
Characteristics & Skills
- Entrepreneurs are like gamblers, and like any gambler, their chances of winning increase if they have the right cards. Let’s look at some characteristics and skills that help an entrepreneur succeed.
- A tolerance forrisk-taking is a necessary attribute for entrepreneurs. You can think of risk-taking as pursuing an activity even if there is a chance of a negative consequence. Starting a business is risky, and even more so when you’re using your own money. Sometimes you can spread the risk by convincing investors to come along on your new venture or by forming an entrepreneurial team, like Eddie is trying to do. But, at the end of the day, you can’t avoid risk if you are going to start a new business and innovate.
- Entrepreneurs also needcreativity. Think about Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg; these two entrepreneurs brought innovative products to the market that changed the way we live. Successful entrepreneurs innovate in one of two ways.