CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 23-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


23 November, 2017

Archives



Inclusive lessons {Educational Policy}

(The Hindu)


Context

Private Islamic schools are a great help, but mainstreaming Muslim girls will require their political participation

Educational disparity

  • Muslim women, particularly those belonging to the lower castes are deprived from proper education.
  • As per the 2011 Census, 48.1% of Muslim women were illiterate; only 2.07% were graduates. Deliverance from ignorance and backwardness for Muslim women lies in their educational and economic advancement.

Point of consideration

Keeping pace with modernising India, many parents now consider it important to send their daughters to mainstream schools.

Issue

This is largely limited to privileged, Ashraf Muslims. As highlighted by the Sachar Committee Report, lack of resources, discriminatory attitudes in schools, and the declining faith in the public schooling system have left Ajlaf women excluded from the mainstream.

Private Islamic schools 

These schools not only offer training in Islamic subjects, such as value-oriented adab (discipline) literature, but also follow the CBSE curriculum. Lying at the intersection of modern and religious curriculum, these hybrid schools offer new educational opportunities for many marginalised adolescent Muslim girls.

The entry of girls into these schools is a bold step towards mainstreaming.

Place in politics

There has been an appreciable decline in active civil society engagement of Muslims post-Independence.

The representation of Muslim women has been abysmal across political institutions.


Far from keeping the world safe {Climate Change}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article deals with the issue regarding climatic changes

Why in news?

The 23rd meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-23) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change concluded on November 17 in Bonn, Germany.

Key topics of discussion

  • Financial support.
  • Mitigation action.
  • Loss and damage.
  • The same knots of disagreements.

Questions raised in Bonn

  • Are developed countries going to do their fair share to support poor and emerging countries, having occupied the bulk of the planet’s available carbon space?
  • What actions have thus far been taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by rich countries?
  • Shouldn’t there be greater emphasis to phase out coal?

Fulfilling obligations

  • Actions related to the Paris Agreement are intended for 2020-2030. However, the pre-2020 period is part of the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Both the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol (2005-2012)and the second (2013-2020)principally laid out the responsibilities for reducing emissions by rich countries. There has been little progress and the 2012 Doha
  • Amendment, the agreement concerning the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol, has not been ratified by a sufficient number of countries to enter into force.
  • Under pressure from poor and emerging economies, actions on the pre-2020 Kyoto period were added to the agenda in the first week of the Bonn meeting. As a result, in 2018 and 2019 there will be additional stocktaking on progress made on the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Another aspect of the obligations that needto be fulfilled by big emitters is related to economic and non-economic losses under the work programme on loss and damage.
  • A third aspect of the support from rich countries is about providing finance, technology, and building capacity for poorer countries, both to protect themselves from the effects of climate change and to help them move along a low-carbon pathway.

Progress and actions needed

  • The science on climate change has been grim this year. Greenhouse gas emissions which appeared to have stabilised for a few years, probably for economic reasons, rose by 2 %in 2017, perhaps due to additional electricity drawn from coal power plants in China.
  • When coal will be phased out globally was a major question. In fact, there were protests organised by activists at Europe’s largest open pit coal mine near the Hambach Forest in Germany, not far from the COP-23.
  • Clearly, greater ambition on clamping down on fossil fuels is needed for the Paris Agreement to be successful.
  • The Bonn meeting saw the launch of the Powering Past Coal Alliance, which was led by Canada and the U.K., and joined by numerous countries and substate actors.

 

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