CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 23rd-December, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


23rd Dec, 2017

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Fear not the robot {Development}


Context

The world is fearing to lose jobs or reduction in employment due to automation but according to new research it can be reduced

Why in news?

A new research by McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) says job growth or jobs gained could more than offset the jobs lost in automation.

How is it possible?

It will require businesses and governments to seize opportunities to boost job creation. The report estimates, that as many as 375 million workers globally, or 14% of the workforce, will likely need to transition to new occupational categories and learn new skills.

Estimates for India

  • In India, it estimates around 38 million workers may need to switch occupational categories. However, if displaced workers are not re-employed quickly, countries will face rising unemployment and depressed wages.
  • In about 60% of occupations, at least one-third of the activities will be automated. Globally, while 400-800 million workers would be displaced by automation and need to find new jobs by 2030, MGI also talks of new opportunities for 390-590 million jobs in the normal course.

In India, the mid-point job-destruction estimate due to automation is of 57 million, the report estimates that around 114 million new jobs will come by 2030 due to greater demand arising from higher incomes and productivity hikes.


Bringing down the cost of healthful {Health Issue}


Context

India is developing country and most of the people cannot afford good healthcare so this is a grave concern for focus and should be taken care specially in case of developing countries

In news

How to bring down health-care costs and end price-gouging by private hospitals?

Assumptions

One, the private healthcare providers’ mission is to make healthcare accessible and affordable by all—it must be recognised that a private hospital provides quality care at full cost plus a premium that reflects the hospital’s profits, and that it is the job of the government to make affordable care ubiquitous.

Two, hospitals make exorbitant profits—in reality, their operating margins are, in general, lower than those of most industries that service the common man.

Significant reform

To remove the incentive for a hospital to inflate the cost of care, via excessive use of consumables or through needless procedures and investigations.

This would have two legs

  • Move healthcare payment from out-of-pocket to pooled and pre-paid for the entire population.
  • Align the hospital’s incentive to the goal of lowering costs

Other recommendations

Reducing unwanted admissions

Cost of admission or readmission to the hospital emergency room is very high and forms a bulk of medical expenditure. Physicians should be careful not to hospitalize for routine or emergency care in case that can be avoided. Accordingly, investigations which are obsolete or not indicated should be discarded.

Cost-effective Medicines

Use of drugs, which cost a fortune, can be replaced by cheaper, but effective drugs. This is especially required for poor people, because unaffordable drug prices are a common reason for discontinuation of treatment.

Multiple use of surgical equipment

The cost of surgeries, whether a simple or a complicated one is usually very high, and a major chunk of it is spent in procuring surgical equipment. The trend is to have new surgical equipment to each patient, to prevent disease transmission. However, with improving methods of sterilization of surgical instruments, surgical equipment can be re used, without the risk of transmission of diseases.

Defensive Medicine

Defensive medicine means practice followed by health care providers to protect themselves from legal cases of unsatisfied patients. In order to avoid standing in the court of law and prove their point, health care providers, subject the patient to unnecessary investigations and procedures, to complete their medical documentation. This adds up to a huge amount, which wastes the money of a lot of patients to prevent the wrath of some patients. Protecting the physician from false claims by stronger legislature is essential to cut down on the cost of defensive medicine.

Health packages

Physicians can do away with the traditional method of charging fees to patients for each visit and instead introduce healthcare packages. This will reduce the medical cost and patients will be keen to follow-up, without being afraid of spending money for each visit.

Professional consultation

A financial consultant should be attached to hospitals, nursing homes and private clinics. This will ensure that the physician is aware of the exact direction of flow of finances to and fro, between the doctor and the patients. Accordingly, medicines that are routinely required can be ordered in bulk amongst several practicing physicians, thereby reducing their cost.

Terminal care

Terminal care being given to patients who are critically ill, involves a huge amount of expenditure consisting of drugs, surgical procedures, investigations, life support equipment, physicians visit etc. These are of value when there is a good hope of saving the patient’s life. In case the chances are bleak, this can cause financial ruin for the patient’s family apart from losing their loved one. Hence, instead of prolonging death, practitioners should treat such patients with cost effective, techniques in mind, finally including discontinuation of life support equipment when necessary. Laws for euthanasia and discontinuation of life support equipment’s should be made and enforced.


 

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1 Comment
  1. Reply
    IAS aspirant
    December 23, 2017 at 10:24 pm

    Sir
    Today I dropped here just by chance and thinking why I didnot find it earlier. Your writing style is actually suits to UPSC requirements and is having a higher standard. You have a proper pattern of writing news and covering mature and relevant materials for us.
    Keep going.

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