CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 25-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


25 November, 2017

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The agony of Stuartpuram {Indian history} {Governance}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article highlights details about stuartpuram and its people.

Stuartpuram

Located 15 kilometres from Bapatla on the Old Grand Trunk Road, Stuartpuram straddles the districts of Guntur and Prakasam in Andhra Pradesh.

Yerukalas tribal origin

The origin of this Yerukalas tribal community has got a rich history behind it. As per the records of the anthropologists, the references of the Yerukalas tribal community can also be found in the great epic of Indian , popularly known as Mahabharata. It has been said that the mythological figure of Mahabharata epic called Yekalavya, who developed expertise in archery , had a belonging to the Yerukalas tribal community.

Modern history

British rule

Yerukalas tribal community have always been the target of the threats and distrusts of some other tribal communities. Instances are also been cited by the experts. In the beginning of twentieth century, the British rulers have branded these Yerukalas tribal community as the ‘ criminal tribes’ as per the rules of “Criminal Tribes Act 1871”, the famous act promulgated by these Britons only.

During the British Imperial rule in India, Yerukalas settled in agriculture or petty trades, such as making ropes, mats, and baskets. Unfortunately, the introduction of railroads brought a setback to their businesses.Due to their desperate situation, subsequent  police oppression,  harsh  punishments,  and  torture,  the  Yerukala  have  been  driven  to  a sub-human standard of living.

Republic of India

  • Today, most of the Yerukalas are settled in the villages/towns and trying to make their way out of the poverty by getting education to obtain financial freedom which has been evading them since ages.
  • Yerukalas are using reservations and other benefits from the government to a greater extent to obtain the freedom they used to have long long time age. Even though they live in a free democratic country like India, they are still living under harsh social conditions because of the Indian caste system and face social discriminations time and again.
  • In several parts of the southern Indian states, the people of this community are called with diverse names. For instance, the Yerukalas tribal community is better known as Kuruvan or Kuruvar in Tamilnadu, Korama or Koracha in Karnataka, Kaikadi in Maharashtra, Siddanar in Kerala and Kattu Naicker in Pondicherry. According to some of the anthropological records, this Yerukulas tribal community speak a dialect which is quite different from the famous language of Telegu in order to carry on conversation with each other and also with others

Rise of reformatory settlements

  • In the early 20th century, the British began setting up small experimental colonies in the coastal areas of the Madras Presidency, where suspects were detained. But despite these experiments, the crime rate did not abate.
  • Feeling weighed down by the burden of restraining the ‘criminal tribes in South India’, around 1913, Harold Stuart, the then Home Member of the Madras Government, approached the Salvation Army to help settle these wandering tribesmen in industrial and agricultural colonies, and wean them away from crime. And thus was born Stuartpuram, named after Stuart.

Turning Corner

The Andhra Pradesh government in 1976 issued orders declaring that Stuartpuram was no longer a reformatory for criminals but a free colony. It was merged with Bethapudi village. Land ownership rights were provided to the inhabitants.

The next generation

A recent accomplishment that has brought joy to the people of Stuartpuram came from the world of sport. Ragala Venkat Rahul and Varun, aged 20 and 19, won gold at the recent Australian Weightlifting Championship. Representing the new hopes of a new generation, the champions from Stuartpuram are determined to make it big in life.


The mandates of natural justice  {Constitutional issues}

{The Hindu}


Context

Questions for the judiciary on the anniversary of India’s adoption of its Constitution

It was on November 26, 68 years ago, that the chairperson of the Constitution drafting committee, B.R. Ambedkar, put to vote the following motion at the Constituent Assembly: “That the Constitution as settled by the Assembly be passed.” The motion, as the minutes of the day’s meeting recorded, was adopted amidst “prolonged cheers.”

In 1969, the Supreme Court Bar Association declared November 26 as Law Day, “a red-letter day,” in the words of the association’s then president, L.M. Singhvi, which the government has now designated as Constitution Day.

A necessary appraisal

The court’s collective actions, in undermining every notion of good ethical conduct, has struck a potentially irredeemable blow at the principles highlighted by Singhvi in his speech, each of which goes to the root of the constitutional morality that Ambedkar held so dear.

Campaign for Judicial Accountability and Reforms (CJAR) 

The Committee on Judicial Accountability (CJA) is a group of lawyers in India who work to improve the accountability of judges.

In 1998 the committee prepared a charge sheet to impeach Justice Madan Mohan Punchhi, and obtained the signatures of 25 Rajya Sabha MPs. However, Punchhi was appointed Chief Justice of India before the required 50 signatures had been obtained, at which point it became impossible to gain further support for the motion.

Objective

CJAR works so that grassroots pressure comes to bear on the authorities for implementing the needed reforms that will impact:

  • Appointment of Judges and Judicial Accountability
  • Access to the Judicial System and Delay in Justice
  • Values and Attitude of the Judiciary towards the Poor

The following Campaign Statement was released at the First People’s Convention on Judicial Accountability & Reforms.


The Chabahar Checkmate {International Relations}

(Indian Express)


Context

This article talks about Chabahar Port used for international trade.

Why in news?

  • Last month, India sent its first consignment of wheat to Afghanistan through the Iranian port of Chabahar; in the following six months it will send six more. This will also take almost all the Afghan trade out of the Afghan Transit Route through Pakistan and give it to Iran, changing the nature of Afghanistan’s relations both with Pakistan and Iran.
  • When the Chabahar deal was made between Tehran and India in 2003, Pakistan didn’t feel compelled to revisit the country’s strategic location between India and Central Asia. It had turned away from the idea of Pak-India free trade and did not respond to India’s award of Most Favoured Nation status in 1996
  • Chabahar as a transit port for Afghanistan, it got a little upset despite the fact that it was doing the same sort of thing by getting into the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which India doesn’t like.

China’s Concern

Pakistan’s friend China thinks differently and this doesn’t rub off on Pakistan despite much admiration for the way China has advanced as an economic power. As far as China is concerned, the CPEC would benefit by joining up with India, Afghanistan and Iran, three countries where China has also invested in a big way

As far as “neighbour” Iran is concerned, Pakistan makes promises to itself about patching up a bad bilateral equation. The “Dawn leak” message last year by the government of Nawaz Sharif had complained that the handling of foreign policy had isolated Pakistan in the region.

Chabahar Port

Chabahar located in southeastern Iran, on the Gulf of Oman. It serves as Iran’s only oceanic port, and consists of two separate ports named Shahid Kalantari and Shahid Beheshti, each of which have five berths

Location

The port of Chabahar is located on the Makran coast of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, next to the Gulf of Oman and at the mouth of Strait of Hormuz. It is the only Iranian port with direct access to the Indian Ocean. Being close to Afghanistan and the Central Asian countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan etc., it has been termed the “Golden Gate” to these land-locked countries.

Chabahar is 700 km (430 mi) away from Zahedan, the capital of the Sistan and Baluchistan province, 950 km (590 mi) away from Milak, the closest city to the Afghan border, and 1,827 km (1,135 mi) away from Sarakhs on the Turkmen border.

Reasons why Iran’s Chabahar port is crucial to India

  • The first and foremost significance of the Chabahar port is the fact that India can bypass Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan. Chabahar port will boost India’s access to Iran, the key gateway to the International North-South Transport Corridor that has sea, rail and road routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia.
  • Chabahar port will be beneficial to India in countering Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea which China is trying to ensure by helping Pakistan develop the Gwadar port. Gwadar port is less than 400 km from Chabahar by road and 100 km by sea.
  • With Chabahar port being developed and operated by India, Iran also becomes a military ally to India. Chabahar could be used in case China decides to flex its navy muscles by stationing ships in Gwadar port to reckon its upper hand in the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Middle East.
  • With Chabahar port becoming functional, there will be a significant boost in the import of iron ore, sugar and rice to India. The import cost of oil to India will also see a considerable decline. India has already increased its crude purchase from Iran since the West imposed ban on Iran was lifted.
  • Chabahar port will ensure in the establishment of a politically sustainable connectivity between India and Afghanistan. This is will, in turn, lead to better economic ties between the two countries.
  • From a diplomatic perspective, Chabahar port could be used as a point from where humanitarian operations could be coordinated.
  • The Zaranj-Delaram road constructed by India in 2009 can give access to Afghanistan’s Garland Highway, setting up road access to four major cities in Afghanistan – Herat, Kandahar, Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif.

 

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