CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 26-November, 2017

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams


26 November, 2017

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To add or not {Health Issue}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article deals with health issue related to consumption of salts

In news

Some studies have concluded that only people with hypertension on high-salt diets need to reduce salt intake.

Why?

Excess sodium is responsible for most cases of hypertension in Western societies, and hypertension is a leading risk factor for heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure. Because salt added to our foods by processors and restaurants, not that from our saltshakers, is the main source of sodium in our diets, protecting the health of the most vulnerable requires a societywide reduction in sodium.

Health effects of salt

The health effects of salt are the conditions associated with the consumption of either too much or too little salt. Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl) and is used in food for both preservation and flavor. Sodium ions are needed in small quantities by most living things, as are chloride ions.

Salt puts up our blood pressure. Raised blood pressure (hypertension) is the major factor which causes strokes, heart failure and heart attacks, the leading causes of death and disability in the UK.  There is also increasing evidence of a link between high salt intake and stomach cancer, osteoporosis, obesity, kidney stones, kidney disease and vascular dementia and water retention. Salt can also exacerbate the symptoms of asthma,  and diabetes.

Long-Term Effects

The relationship between too much salt intake and cardiovascular disease was confirmed in a large review study published in the “British Medical Journal” in 2009, in which more than 177,000 human subjects were evaluated for their salt intake and incidence of heart disease and stroke. Those who consumed the most salt had a significantly higher incidence of these disorders than those who consumed less. According to the Harvard School of Public Health, high salt intake may also be linked to osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones, because sodium retention can lead to loss of calcium from bones. Too much sodium may increase your risk for stomach cancer, as well.

Who’s at high risk of developing health problems related to salt consumption?

  • People over age 50
  • People who have high or slightly elevated blood pressure
  • People who have diabetes

Amount of salt are essential for our health

Adults need less than 1 gram per day and children need even less. As a nation we are all eating approximately 8.1g of salt per day, far more than we need and more than the  recommended maximum of 6g per day, putting us at risk of all of these health problems.

Different groups of people can also have different reasons to keep an eye on their salt intake.

The good news is that reducing your salt intake can lower your blood pressure and the risk of disease. In fact right down to 3g per day, the lower the salt intake, the lower the blood pressure.


Gained in Translation: The unseen neighbour {International Relations}

(Indian Express)


Context

This article explains India’s relation with Myanmar

Burma

Burma is now called Myanmar. We live so close by, with just the Patkai mountain in between. Yet, it remains a place shrouded in mystery, not only for us alone, but for the whole world.

Why it is shrouded in mystery?

India shares 1,643 km of boundary with it, yet it is inaccessible. Areas along the boundary are remote, unreachable, covered with thick vegetation, steep mountains, or difficult water-bodies, and infested with mosquitoes and all kinds of poisonous insects and reptiles.

Past of Myanmar

  • In the past are hidden heart-rending agonies of thousands of its inhabitants, rivers of tears, deafening sound of bombs and bullets, and fire and smoke. There are endless stories of ethnic cleansing too, which are still going on today.
  • Millions of people have been victims of exploitation, displacement and many a times of mass slaughter too. Bullets, explosions, bombardments, fire and smoke have often turned the sky there black. Children and adolescents have been often compelled to take up arms instead of textbooks, consuming drugs instead of nutritious food.
  • Bamar, comprising about 60 per cent of the total population, is the largest ethnic group there, followed by Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Kayah, Mon, Rakhine and Shan communities — these groups have a chequered history of inter-ethnic struggles for dominance.
  • Although the Europeans began arriving from the 16th century, it was only after a series of expeditions till 1886, that followed Assam’s annexation to British India in 1826, that the whole of Myanmar passed into the hands of the British. Yangon was a backward place and in turmoil way back in 1889 too when Rudyard Kipling spent just three days there on his way from Kolkata to San Francisco.

Culture

India and Myanmar share close cultural ties and a sense of deep kinship given India’s Buddhist heritage. Building on this shared heritage India is undertaking some key initiatives: Restoration of the Ananda Temple in Bagan and GOI donation of a 16 foot replica of the Sarnath Buddha Statue which has been installed at the premises of Shwedagon pagoda in Yangon.


 

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