Daily Editorial Analysis CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 27th-January, 2018

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27th Jan, 2018

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Natural partners in the Asian century {Economic Policy}

(The Hindu)


Context

This article compares growth and development of Asian countries to western countries

There is a need for a fresh perspective in India’s China policy

What is causing changes in Global power?

Technology and size are causing this change. The physical size of a nation did not matter during the 19th and most of the 20th centuries. Britain, Germany, France and Japan leveraged their Industrial Revolution advantage on technology for armaments to become world powers despite their relatively small size.

Europe thus became the global centre till the late 1950s. 

Potential power

  • It is shifting to the two large nations of the Asian mainland, China and India, which are nuclear weapons states and with fast-growing economies. Together they represent 60% of the Asian mainland.
  • Asia already accounts for almost half of the world’s population, half of the world’s container traffic, one-third of its bulk cargo and 40% of the world’s off-shore oil reserves.
  • It is home to several fast-growing new economies with GDP growth rates above 7% per year, i.e. a doubling of the GDP every 10 years.
  • Asian defence spending ($439 billion) is also much more than Europe’s ($386 billion). I
  • n a few years half of the world’s naval fleet and combat aircraft with extended range missiles, supported by highly sophisticated communications networks, will soon be seen roaming in the Indo-Pacific region.

How can Indian and China reach the top in terms of Global power?

To achieve that potential, both require hardware, software and the clear mindset for exercising this power. As of now, China is ahead of India in reaching that level

India’s China policy thus needs a re-structuring based on a fresh perspective that is relevant for the 21st century

Issue with India

India is at present only a regional power. Because of its present mindset, it is obsessed with the problem of Pakistan-trained terrorists entering Indian territory rather than asserting higher priority on global issues.

Solution

  • India, therefore, needs a new mindset: to look beyond Pakistan. Moreover, it depends on whether India’s intellectual outlook matures enough to find acceptable accommodation with China for a partnership in Asian peace.
  • The key for India today is to bond strategically with China.
  • India, therefore, has to strive imaginatively to become a stakeholder in this new global power paradigm

Ramayana is a bridge that connects India with Asean {Culture}

(Hindustan times)

Context

The eclectic interpretations of the epic in different Southeast Asian countries throw up many surprises

Story Behind

In the 15th century, the capital of Thai- land was a city called Ayutthaya, which is Ayodhya in the local language. When Burmese soldiers over ranthiscity in the 18thcentury,a new king rose. He called

Himself Ramal, established the city we now Known as Bangkok, wrote the epic Ramakien,

which is Ramayana in the local language, made it the national epic, and had it painted as

murals on the walls of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, patronised by the royal family.

Though he was a Buddhist, the king established his royal credentials by identifying

Himself with the mythical Ram.

In those days, long before British Orientalists and the divide-and-rule policy, no one distinguished between Buddhism and Hinduism.

Ram was as much a hero for Buddhists of Southeast Asia as he was for the Hindus of South Asia. Soon he became a role model for

local kings. This legitimising of kingship through Ramayana began more than 1,000
Buddhist monk Xuanzang travel to India and find original Buddhist scriptures.
Asin Thailand and Burma, kings of Cambodia today follow Theravada Buddhism. But centuries before, they followed Mahayana Buddhism.

Story of the Epic Ramayana Differs in Other Parts of Asia

Originally written in Sanskrit by sage Valmiki, the Ramayana has been interpreted in different ways in these countries. These adaptations take the basic plot of Valmiki’s Ramayana but modify it according to the culture of their own communities. It is then represented in different ways in their literature, dance, theatre and also temple architecture.

1. The Buddhist version

In Dashratha Jataka, the Buddhist version of the Ramayana, Dashratha was the king of Kashi first and then of Ayodhya. But the main point of departure from Valmiki’s version in this Ramayana is that Rama, Sita and Lakshmana were sent to a hermitage in the Himalayas for twelve years by Dashratha in order to protect them from his over ambitious third wife Kalyani, instead of being banished from the kingdom as is popularly believed.

2. The Jain version

In this version, Rama is a follower of non-violence. So, it is Lakshmana who kills Ravana and both of them go to hell. Rama, in the end, renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk and eventually attains moksha. He also predicts that both Lakshmana and Ravana will be re-born as upright persons and attain salvation.

3. The Malay version

Hikayat Seri Rama, the Malay version of the epic poem, gives Lakshmana a larger role and even increases his importance as compared to Rama in some incidents. Malay writers and storytellers have also glorified Lakshmana’s courage.

4. The Thai version

The Thai Version

One of the most popular works of literature in Thailand, Ramakien is the Thai version of the Ramayana. It is considered to be Thailand’s national epic and has a deep influence on Thai literature, culture and art.

Though most of the stories are the same as those in Valmiki’s version, Ramakien gives more importance to Hanuman.

5. The Burmese version

The Burmese version of the Ramayana is known as Yama Zatdaw and is the unofficial national epic of Myanmar. The plot, the features and characteristics of the characters remain the same in this version, the only difference being the names, which are Burmese transliterations of the Sanskrit names.

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