CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS

Current Affairs Only Daily Editorial Analysis for Competitive Exams



1.No case for an all India judicial service

The Hindu


Why in news?

The Narendra Modi government has given a fresh push to the long-pending proposal to set up the new service to have a separate cadre for lower judiciary in the country. 

What is the Proposal?

The government has proposed an exam on the lines of the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test, better known as Neet, held for medical course to select judicial officers to address concerns over the quality of junior judges and lack of uniformity in recruitment.

All-India Judicial Service

 The proposal for an All-India Judicial Service was first suggested in the Chief Justices’ Conference in 1961 as a way to remove any scope for judicial or executive intervention in the appointments to the judiciary in the High Courts and the Supreme Court in India. The idea had to be shelved after some states and High Courts opposed it.

The Constitution was amended in 1977 to provide for an AIJS under Article 312. The proposal was again floated by the ruling UPA government in 2012 but the draft bill was shelved again after opposition from High Court Chief Justices who labeled this an infringement of their rights.

Procedure of appointment of employees through AIJS

  • District judges will be recruited centrally through an all-India examinationand allocated to each State along the lines of the AIS
  • This will ensure a transparentand efficient method of recruitment to attract the best talent in India’s legal profession

Objection against AIJS

  • The first objection to this idea is that it does not adequatelydiagnose the problem
  • Almost no effort has gone into improving the standard of legal educationacross the country
  • The best law schools in India are the few set up and funded by the State governments, barring a few exceptions.

Issues with ‘National Exam’

  • A “national exam” risks shutting out those from less privileged backgrounds from being able to enter the judicial services.
  • It may end up not taking into account local lawspracticesand customs
  • These points vary widely across States, and this will increase the costs of training for judgesselected through the mechanism

The way forward

  • The problemsof the Indian judiciary at all levels have reached catastrophic levels
  • The publicis losing confidence in the judiciary
  • None of the problems related to judiciary will be solved to any degree bycentralisingthe manner of recruitment of judges
  • This matter should be treated expeditiously

2.How technology can deliver freedom from male calf

Indian Express


Context

Sexed semen technology is about preselecting the sex of offspring by sorting or separating the X-sperms from Y-sperms. The aim is to deliver freedom from male calves, by ensuring that cows are inseminated by semen containing only X-chromosome-bearing sperms.

Why in news?

In these times of gaurakshak activism, there can be nothing worse for dairy farmers than their cows or buffaloes delivering male calves.

Solution to this concern

A new technology ‘sexed semen’ having 90%-plus sperms carrying the X-chromosome, and capable of producing only female offspring.

Objective of this new technology

to deliver freedom from male calves, by ensuring that cows are inseminated by semen containing only X-chromosome-bearing sperms.

How it works?Image result for ‘sexed semen’

  • A bull’s sperm has 30 chromosomes, including one which is either an X- or a Y-chromosome whose genes code for sex.
  • When a sperm and egg unite, and the former carries the X-chromosome, the resultant offspring is female (XX). When a Y-chromosome-bearing sperm fertilises an egg, the result is a male calf (XY).
  • Sexed semen technology is about preselecting the sex of offspring by sorting or separating the X-sperms from Y-sperms.
  • The sorting process basically involves exploiting the differences in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content between X-chromosome-bearing and Y-chromosome-bearing sperms.

Sexing Technology ST’s sperm-sorting technology is claimed to be 93% accurate. 

Issues with sex semen

  • The comparable cost of sexed semen to the farmer is now anywhere between Rs 1,200 and Rs 2,600 per straw.
  • Semen cost goes up if it is from a bull with higher genetic merit (evaluated in terms of milk yields, number of productive lactations, fat and protein content, etc.)

3.Big Data enters Indian policy

Livemint


Context

Economists have now begun to use machine learning to extract information from satellite images.

Why in news?

The second volume of the Economic Survey released by the Union finance ministry last week shows that innovative use of images has begun to make its overdue presence felt in India as well.

Big Data

Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data, data storage, data analysis, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating and information privacy.

Innovative use of images for policymaking

  • The use of such satellite images is part of a broader shift towards the use of newer types of inputs for policymaking.
  • The eighth chapter uses satellite data to see whether India is more urbanized than most traditional indicators suggest.
  • Satellite images show that India is far more urbanized than metrics other than the traditional ones suggest.

Traditional Method

The census uses three metrics to identify a town—the population should be more than 5,000, the density of the settlement should be at least 400 people per sq. km, and more than three out of every four residents should have employment outside agriculture.

Economists have now begun to use machine learning—or the use of computer algorithms that learn from data

Merit of using technology in policymaking

  • The use of Big Data also allows policymakers to understand the direction of labour flows

 

 

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