The Hindu NOTES – 27th Nov 2017(Daily News Paper Analysis)

📰 THE HINDU NEWSPAPER– DAILY  Hindu Current Affairs Analysis 27th Nov 2017



Date:- 27-NOV, 2017

Archive


📰 Why don’t you trust PM, Law Minister asks judiciary {Governance}


Context

CJI responds to Ravi Shankar Prasad, says judges repose trust in the popularly elected leader

Background

  • In sharp criticism of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) judgment which revived the Supreme Court collegium, Union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said on Sunday that at the core of the verdict is the judiciary’s distrust in the capability of the Law Minister and the Prime Minister to appoint a “fair judge.”
  • Under the now struck down Article 124A of the Constitution, the Law Minister was an ex officio member of the NJAC and the Prime Minister was part of the three-member panel which nominated the two eminent persons to the NJAC, which was meant to give the political class an equal say in judicial appointments to the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
  • The Prime Minister is the repository of constitutional trust. Trust is reposed in the Prime Minister. That is the language of the Constituent Assembly and we are not going to add anything. Constitution does not envisage the Law Ministry and Minister as mere “post offices” of the collegium, he said the collegium has never ignored the observations and objections raised by the Law Minister.

National Judicial Appointments Commission

  • It was a proposed body which would have been responsible for the appointment and transfer of judges to the higher judiciary in India.
  • The Commission was established by amending the Constitution of India through the ninety-ninth constitution amendment vide the Constitution (Ninety-Ninth Amendment) Act, 2014 passed by the Lok Sabha on 13 August 2014 and by the Rajya Sabha on 14 August 2014.
  • The NJAC would have replaced the collegium system for the appointment of judges as invoked by the Supreme court via judicial fiat by a new system.
  • Along with the Constitution Amendment Act, the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014, was also passed by the Parliament of India to regulate the functions of the National Judicial Appointments Commission.

📰 Drought, heat-waves increasing in frequency {Environment}


In news

Analysing rainfall and temperature data of 50 years, researchers from Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have found that the frequency of heat waves accompanied by drought has increased not only in magnitude but in area too over the past three decades – particularly in Gujarat and Central India.

Heat-wavesImage result for heat-waves

While heat-waves (or, a prolonged period when temperatures approach record extremes) and droughts are destructive even when occurring in separate events, their concurrence is far more serious.

Analysis

  • Researchers calculated the Heatwave Magnitude Index daily (HWMId) — which combines duration and magnitude of heatwaves — and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which defines meteorological drought from 1951 to 1981.
  • Using that as the base, they compared it with the HWMId and SPI between 1981 and 2010. In all combinations of drought (moderate or severe) and heatwaves (3.5 and 10-day events) that were analysed, the percentage increase in frequency was most significant in parts of Maharashtra and Southern Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • This could be due to the intricate relationship of land surface processes, soil moisture, evapo-transpiration and local climate. (Evapo-transpiration is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth’s land and ocean surface to the atmosphere).

Way forward

Next step would be to factor in soil moisture along with the data to develop models that could predict where the extreme events could occur.


📰 IAF banks on Tejas, new fighter to bolster fleet {Defence}


In news

The Indian Air Force (IAF) is looking at the indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas and the soon-to-be-procured single-engine fighter jet to arrest a dramatic fall in its squadron strength as the deal for 36 Rafale jets lands in the middle of political maelstrom.

Background Image result for Tejas,

  • As the deal with the French government for 36 Rafale jets lands in the middle of political maelstrom, the Indian Air Force (IAF) is looking at Tejas, the indigenously developed light combat aircraft, and a single-engine fighter to be procured soon to arrest the dramatic fall in its squadron strength.
  • With the planned induction of 36 Rafales between 2019 and 2022, the remaining Sukhoi-30MKIs and some Tejas jets, the strength will be 30 till 2027. In the subsequent five-year term, it will fall to 27. If there are no new inductions, it will slide further to 19 by 2042.
  • Lockheed F-16 and Saab Gripen are in the race for the order and have already tied up with the Tatas and the Adani group, respectively, to build the jets locally with technology transfer.

Way forward

IAF is upgrading most of the aircraft in its inventory. But from 2025 onwards most of those aircraft such as the Jaguars and the MiG-29s will start going out,” the source said.

In a month, the IAF is expected to issue the Request for Information (RFI) for over a 100 single-engine fighter aircraft under the Strategic Partnership model. Lockheed F-16 and Saab Gripen are in the race for the order and have already tied up with Tata and Adani, respectively, to build the jets locally with technology transfer.


📰 What do amendments to IBC mean to promoters? {Banking & Economy}


What is bankruptcy? What is the IBC’s intent?

  • A company is bankrupt if it is unable to repay debts to its creditors (banks, suppliers etc). The inability to repay debts by some Indian firms has resulted in a huge pile of non-performing assets for the banking system.
  • The Indian government had introduced the IBC as a method to tackle the issue. Under the Code, a resolution has to be found for the indebted company within 270 days. Otherwise, a liquidator is appointed. The company can also opt for voluntary liquidation by a special resolution in a general meeting.

 What are the key elements of the amendment?

  • The amendment has inserted two new sections in the insolvency code — Section 29A, which provides for persons ineligible to be a Resolution Applicant; and Section 235A, which provides for punishment for contravention of the provisions where no specific penalty or punishment is provided.

Section 29A says those ineligible to be a Resolution Applicant include:

  • Wilful defaulters (ie, those associated with non-performing assets, or are habitually non-compliant and, therefore, are likely to be a risk to successful resolution of insolvency of a company);
  • Those whose accounts are classified as Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) for one year or more and are unable to settle overdue amounts including interest and charges relating to the account before submission of the Resolution Plan;
  • Those who have executed an enforceable guarantee in favour of a creditor, in respect of a corporate debtor undergoing a Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process or Liquidation Process under the Code and others connected to the above, such as promoters or those in management control of the Resolution Applicant, or those who will be promoters or in management control of corporate debtor during the implementation of the Plan, the holding company, subsidiary company, associate company or related party of the above persons.

📰 Surge in oxygen levels led to explosion of life: study {Biodiversity}


In news

A boost in levels of oxygen may have caused a three-fold increase in biodiversity during between 445 and 485 million years ago, a study has found.

Highlights

  • The explosion of diversity, recognised as the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, brought about the rise of various marine life, tremendous change across species families and types, as well as changes to the Earth, starting at the bottom of the ocean floors.
  • This oxygenation is supported by two approaches that are mostly independent from each other, using different sets of geochemical records and predicting the same amount of oxygenation occurred at roughly the same time as diversification
  • It should be stressed that this was probably not the only reason why diversification occurred then. It is likely that other changes — such as ocean cooling, increased nutrient supply to the oceans and predation pressures – worked together to allow animal life to diversify for millions of years

Chemical signatures

  • Using geochemical proxies, high-resolution data and chemical signatures preserved in carbonate rocks formed from seawater, researchers were able to identify an oxygen increase during the Middle and Late Ordovician periods.
  • They found a nearly 80% increase in oxygen levels where oxygen constituted about 14% of the atmosphere during the Darriwilian Stage (Middle Ordovician 460-465 million years ago) and increased to as high as 24% of the atmosphere by the mid-Katian (Late Ordovician 450-455 million years ago).
  • Oxygenation of the atmosphere and shallow ocean took millions of years, and only when shallow seas became progressively oxygenated were the major pulses of diversification able to take place

Ordovician period

The Ordovician Period lasted almost 45 million years, beginning 488.3 million years ago and ending 443.7 million years ago.


📰 Coral transplant raises Barrier Reef survival hopes {Environment}


In news

Researchers converted species’ eggs into larvae for method.

The experiment

In a trial at the reef’s Heron Island off Australia’s east coast, the researchers collected large amount of coral spawn and eggs late last year, grew them into larvae and then transplanted them into areas of damaged reef.

When they returned eight months later, they found juvenile coral that had survived and grown, aided by underwater mesh tanks.

“The success of this new research not only applies to the Great Barrier Reef but has potential global significance

Benefits

Larval-restoration approach contrasts with the current “coral gardening” method of breaking up healthy coral and sticking healthy branches on reefs in the hope they will regrow, or growing coral in nurseries before transplantation

The results are very promising and our work shows that adding higher densities of coral larvae leads to higher numbers of successful coral recruits. The Great Barrier Reef is reeling from an unprecedented second-straight year of coral bleaching because of warming sea temperatures linked to climate change.

What is coral bleaching?

 Coral Bleaching Infographic

When corals are stressed by changes in conditions such as temperature, light, or nutrients, they expel the symbiotic algae living in their tissues, causing them to turn completely white.

Warmer water temperatures can result in coral bleaching. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called coral bleaching.

Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Queensland in northeastern Australia, is the largest living thing on Earth, and even visible from outer space. The 2,300km-long ecosystem comprises thousands of reefs and hundreds of islands made of over 600 types of hard and soft coral. It’s home to countless species of colourful fish, molluscs and starfish, plus turtles, dolphins and sharks.


📰 These Lebanese divers don’t look for treasure but trash {Environment}


In news

The group is conducting a clean-up below the waves, one of many initiatives emerging from Lebanon’s civil society and private sector in response to the government’s failure to address a long-running garbage crisis.

The dive, off the town of Tabarja, 25 km north of Beirut, proved fruitful: the divers emerged with nets full of plastic and glass bottles, rusted drink and food cans and even tyres, as a few swimmers nearby looked on bemused.

In response to the 2015 crisis, and the massive demonstrations it provoked, the government in March 2016 approved a “temporary” plan to reopen two long-closed dumps in the Beirut area.

European Union funds have helped pay for several sorting and composting facilities in Lebanon, but there are still more than 900 unlicensed dumps nationwide


📰 WHO releases guidelines on child sex abuse {I.R.}


In news

World Health Organisation has formulated clinical guidelines on responding to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused.

The guidelines put forward recommendations for the frontline health care providers — general practitioners, gynaecologists, paediatricians, nurses and others — who may directly receive a victim of sexual abuse or may identify sexual abuse during the course of diagnosis and treatment.

Guidelines

  • Like the IAP guidelines, the new WHO guidelines too focus on the recommendations and good practice suggestions in terms of disclosure made by the child, obtaining medical history, conducting physical examinations and forensic investigations, documenting findings, offering preventive treatment for HIV post exposure, pregnancy prevention, and other sexually transmitted diseases, psychological and mental health interventions among others.
  • The guidelines highlight that child sexual abuse has a short-term as well as long-term mental health impact like lifetime diagnosis of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, externalising symptoms, eating disorders, problems with relationships, sleep disorders and suicidal and self-harm ideation and behaviours.
  • Health consequences of the abuse include the risk of pregnancy, gynaecological disorders such as chronic non-cyclical pelvic pain, menstrual irregularities, painful periods, genital infections and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

One of the most commonly seen mistakes in handling child sexual abuse cases is re-traumatising the child as well as his parents with questions. Such mistakes can be avoided if those dealing with such cases are well trained.

Read More in Details: Center to plan Strategy For Schools To Deal With Cases Of Sex Abuse


📰 Make China comply with WTO norms {International Relation}


In news

China must comply with World Trade Organisation’s [WTO] norms, the Swadeshi Jagaran Manch [SJM], the economic wing of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [RSS].

India is “suffering due to heavy imports” from China which is enabled by Beijing’s non-compliance with WTO norms, an SJM memorandum to the Prime Minister said.

China “has not complied” with WTO norms



Read CAO Editorial Analysis: CAO Daily Editorial analysis for UPSC IAS 27-November, 2017


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