The HINDU Notes – 02nd JUNE 2017(Daily News Paper Analysis For UPSC CSE)
- India’s plans to acquire a rs. 1,000-crore polar research vehicle (PRV) — a ship that can cut through ice sheets and glaciers — may see fresh delays.
- Earlier attempts: Early 2015, Spanish ship-building company was roped in, the contract fell through, primarily due to escalated costs.
- Indian ship companies are not experienced in building PRVs.
- There are very few companies in the world with such expertise.
Why do we need a PRV?
- The ship is expected to be central to India’s ambitions in the Arctic and Antarctica.
- India has announced plans to rebuild Maitri, its research station in Antarctica, and make it impervious to its harsh environment for at least 25 years.
- PRV’s are also known as ‘ice-breaker,’ it can cut through a 1.5-metre thick wall of ice.
- It has a lifespan of 30 years.
- Research conducted by Young Lives in coordination with the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has revealed that Rajasthan has reported the highest incidence of child marriages.
- Based on 2011 census, 2.5% of marriages of minor girls were reported in Rajasthan.
- Rajasthan also topped in the percentage (4.69%) of boys marrying below the legal age of 21 years.
- According to the Census study, 12.9% of girls got married in the age of 10-17 years and 43.6% between 18-20 years. However, only 4.9% of boys got married in the 10-17 years age group and 11.2 % in the 18-below 21 age group.
- Urban –Rural Divide:
- The decline in rural India, between 2001 and 2011 Census, was marginally higher than in the whole of the country.
- Incidence of child marriage among girls increased substantially in urban India from 1.78% in 2001 to 2.45% in 2011.
India, Russia ink nuclear plant pact
- India and Russia have signed the much-awaited agreement on setting up two more units of Kudankulam nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu.
- The two countries also decided to hold the first tri-Services exercises, named ‘Indra-2017,’ this year and start joint manufacture of frigates, adding to the co-production of Kamov-226 military helicopters.
- In a vision document, the two countries called for an end to cross-border movement of terrorists, and asserted that a decisive collective response from the international community without “double standards and selectivity” was required to combat the threat of cross-border terrorism.
File returns or face cancellation, NGOs told
- Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that fail to submit their annual income and expenditure records by June 14 will face cancellation of their FCRA registration, the government has warned.
- A large number of NGOs, registered under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, are yet to submit their annual returns for five years -2010-11 to 2014-15 -despite being given a final opportunity to do so.
- The government is estimated to have cancelled the licences of nearly 7,500 NGOs in last three years after they failed to disclose their income and expenditure statements.
- The government scheme is not applicable to NGOs like Greenpeace, Sabrang Trust, Islamic Research Foundation and 1,300 otherswhose registrations have been cancelled for allegedly violating various provisions of the FCRA.
- In November 2016, the government had directed over 11,000 NGOs to file applications for renewal of registration by February 28, 2017.
US will withdraw from Paris climate deal, says President Donald Trump
President Donald Trump declared that the United States will withdraw from the Paris accord and try to negotiate a new global deal on climate change.Background:
- The Paris Agreement is to prevent an increase in the global average temperature, and keep it well below 2°C. The Agreement, considered a landmark move forward, was adopted on December 12, 2015 by 195 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), replacing its predecessor Kyoto Protocol. The Agreement was finally ratified on November 4, 2016.
US withdrawal from Paris Agreement:
- The Paris climate agreement gives undue advantage to India and China at the cost of U.S. interests, President Donald Trump said on Thursday, announcing America’s withdrawal from the pact.
- “For example, under the agreement, China will be able to increase these emissions by a staggering number of years — 13. They can do whatever they want for 13 years. Not us. India makes its participation contingent on receiving billions and billions and billions of dollars in foreign aid from developed countries.
Second largest polluter
- The U.S. is not only the largest historical emitter of greenhouse gases, but also one the major current emitters. Without the active and ambitious contribution from the U.S., any action to combat climate change under the Paris Agreement will be insufficient by a huge margin.
- The U.S. is responsible for 21% of the current carbon stock in the atmosphere. It is currently the second largest polluter in the world, and has the highest per capita emissions.
- Under its climate action plan, the U.S. had pledged to reduce its emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2025. On the 1990 baseline, the U.S. will cut emissions by 13-15% by 2025 and 23-27% by 2030. In comparison, the EU-28 will reduce 40% below 1990 levels by 2030.
- In its federal budget, the U.S. has announced that there will be no further funding to IPCC and UNFCCC. It has also vowed not to fulfill its support commitment of $2 billion to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- This is not the first time that U.S. is opting out of an international climate agreement. It pulled out of the Kyoto Protocol saying that emerging economies do not have quantified emission targets.
- A meeting between the two men who run Russia and Saudi Arabia’s oil empires spoke volumes about the new relationship between the energy superpowers.
- It was the first time that Rosneft boss Igor Sechin and Saudi Aramco chief Amin Nasser had held a formal, scheduled meeting – going beyond the numerous times they had simply encountered each other at oil events around the world.
- The CEOs discussed possible ways of cooperating in Asia, such as Indonesia and India, as well as in other markets.
- The sources did not disclose further details, but any cooperation in Asia between Russia and Saudi Arabia – the world’s two biggest oil exporters – would be unprecedented.
- OPEC kingpin Saudi Arabia and non-OPEC Russia led a global pact to extend a crude output cut to prop up prices.
- Big oil consumers around the world have long relied on the hot rivalry between the two top suppliers to secure better deals.
- Up until a year ago, the two sides had virtually no dialogue at all, even in the face of a spike in U.S. shale oil production that had led to a collapse in global prices from mid-2014.
- In a sign of their white-hot Asian rivalry, Rosneft outbid Aramco to buy India’s refiner Essar last year and boost its share in the world’s fastest growing fuel market.
- Fast forward a matter of months, and Moscow and Riyadh have become the main protagonists of the pact to cut output – agreed in December and extended last week – and are even discussing possible cooperation in their core Asian markets. “
SEBI’s increased monitoring:
- SEBI’s 54-page March order barring Reliance Industries and 12 other entities from the equity derivatives segment for one year and directing them to disgorge almost Rs. 1,000 crore featured the word ‘manipulation’ 15 times.
- That the markets regulator wasn’t singling out this one high-profile case was evident from the fact that the number of market manipulation and price rigging cases investigated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) touched an all-time high of 174 in the nine-month period between April and December 2016.
- This was the highest in the last seven financial years since data had been made available. Incidentally, this was also the first time that the number of such cases had exceeded 100 in a fiscal. The previous high was 86 in 2012-13.
Categories of cases:
- SEBI’s increased monitoring perhaps in the matters relating to collective investment schemes, misuse of long term capital gains (LTCG) and intentional self-trades through algorithmic trading seems to have led to the increase in numbers.
- The SEBI data, however, does not throw light on the number of cases related to global depository receipts (GDRs), mutual funds or collective investment schemes (CIS) being investigated into.
- Also, it is unclear how many cases relating to non-disclosures are under examination.
- Apart from market manipulation and price rigging, the market regulator had categorised investigations under insider trading, takeovers and issue related manipulation segments.
- There have been many instances of investigations related to misuse of long term capital gains (LTCG), front running and self-trades in the recent past.
- Interestingly, experts also attribute the rising number of such cases (being investigated) to the fact that the regulator had strengthened its investigation and surveillance prowess and a higher number of alerts are now being handled.
- “Stock exchanges provide information to SEBI that generates internal alerts as well. SEBI has been hiring professionals from top institutions, that has increased its capacity to better handle such cases. Market integrity is of paramount importance and SEBI has started looking at more cases of market manipulation,” added Mr. Chitlangi.
SC order enhances rights of landlords:
A landlord can continue eviction proceedings against his tenant even after taking possession of the disputed building from the latter, the Supreme Court has held.
“Merely because the landlords have taken possession on the basis of an order for eviction granted on one ground, that does not mean that the surviving grounds have become non-est (is a defence in contract law that allows a signing party to escape performance of an agreement),” SC
SC enhances rights of landlords
- The court was deciding on the interplay between Section 11(4)(iii) and Section 11(4)(iv) of the Kerala Buildings (Lease and Rent Control) Act, 1965. The judgment was based on a 23-year-old rent dispute case based in Vadakara district in Kerala.
- Under Section 11 (4) (iii), a tenant can be evicted on the ground that he has other buildings in the same city which would suit the purposes, residential or official, for which he is using the disputed rental building.
- Under Section 11 (4) (iv), the landlord can seek the eviction of his tenant for the purpose of demolition or reconstruction of the rental building. In the present case, the local rent control court allowed the plea for eviction on the ground of demolition and reconstruction but not on the fact that his tenant was in possession of another building in the same place.
- The landlord successfully moved the First Appellate Authority for relief also under Section 11 (4) (iii). The tenants moved the Kerala High Court, which held that a landlord cannot continue to seek eviction on various grounds after he has already been granted relief under one, that is under Section 11 (4) (iv) for the purpose of demolition and reconstruction.
Odisha to have first automatic coastal warning for disasters in India:
Odisha can warn the vast population residing along its 480 km-long coast by pressing a single button from a control room in the State capital in the event of the occurrence of natural disasters like a tsunami or a cyclone.
- The State government is all set to commission the ambitious Early Warning Dissemination System (EWDS) that would enable loud sirens go off simultaneously from towers at 122 locations by July.
- Odisha is the first State in India to have developed an automatic public address system that can be activated along its entire coast. Neighbouring Andhra Pradesh is also building up such capability to face natural calamities.
- The EWDS comprises of technologies like Satellite-Based Mobile Data Voice Terminals (SBMDVT), Digital Mobile Radio (DMR), Mass Messaging System (MMS) and Universal Communication Interface (UCI) for inter-operability among different communication technologies.
- The project, which is being implemented with assistance from the World Bank, will have towers in 22 blocks under six coastal districts such as Balasore, Bhadrak, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Puri and Ganjam at an estimated cost of ₹ 82 crore.