The HINDU Notes – 15th May 2017(Daily News Paper Analysis)
⏳ Xi evokes Panchsheel as India skips meet Sharif underscores need to resolve conflict through talks
What’s in news?
Chinese President Xi Jinping on Sunday proposed five principles of peaceful co-existence or Panchsheel — the brainchild of China, India and Myanmar in the 1950s — as the mantra for advancing the Belt and Road Initiative (B&RI), and as a vehicle for achieving sustainable globalisation.
- India has decided to boycott the BRF, as a mark of protest against the infringement of its sovereignty by the China- Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) that passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK).
- India has boycotted Belt and Road Forum (BRF) while other countries such as Japan and Vietnam, which have serious maritime disputes with China, have sent high-level official delegations, to the BRF.
⏳ Pak. detained Saeed for ‘spreading terror’
- Mumbai terror attack mastermind and Jamat-ud Dawah ( JuD) chief Hafiz Saeed and his four aides have been put under house arrest in Lahore since Jan. 30 for “spreading terrorism in the name of jihad,” Pakistan’s Interior Ministry has told a judicial review board.
- Saeed appeared before the board on 14 May 2017 and said that he had been detained by the government in order to stop him from raising his voice for the Kashmiris.
- However, the Interior Ministry rejected his arguments and told the three member board that Saeed and his four aides have been detained for “spreading terrorism in the name of jihad.”
1991: Hafiz Mohammad Saeed sets up Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT).
2001, December 13: Indian Parliament attacked. 14 dead.
2001, December 21: Pakistan puts Hafiz under house arrest after the attacks on Indian Parliament. Later released on parole in February 2002.
2006, July 11: A series of seven explosions on suburban Mumbai trains. LeT is again suspected to be behind the attacks.
2006, July 21: India asks Musharraf to ban Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) and arrest its leaders, including Hafiz in connection with the Mumbai train blasts. Pakistan rejected the demand.
2006, August 9: Hafiz again placed under house arrest for a month for “security reason”. He had wanted to hold a rally in Lahore on 14 August (Pakistani Independence Day).
2008, December 10: UN declares JuD as a front for LeT and labels it a banned organisation.
2008, December 11: Pakistan bans JuD.
2008, December 11: Hafiz, the mastermind of the Mumbai attacks, is put under house arrest following the UN decision.
2008, November 26: Coordinated shooting and bomb blasts across Mumbai. LeT and JuD involvement suspected.
2009, May 20: India gives fresh information to Pakistan relating to 26/11 and on the key planners including Hafiz Saeed.
2009, June : The Lahore High Court orders the release of banned group Jamaat-ud-Dawa chief Hafiz Mohammad Saeed citing insufficient evidence as the reason for lifting the house arrest.
⏳ IIT-B gives a leg-up to thermal imaging tech
- A team of scientists from IIT-Bombay has now made a key breakthrough in developing India’s first infrared sensors for thermal imaging.
- The research started in 2010, with funding from the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
- The technology, the scientists say, can be used for a range of applications such as night vision, surveillance and – going beyond military and security operations – even in the detection of cancers.
⏳ Be scientific On GM mustard for farms, the Centre must privilege reason over politics in taking the call
With the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee, an Environment Ministry body that assesses genetically modified yields, endorsing transgenic mustard for ecological discharge, a key obstacle stays before agriculturists can develop it: Environment Minister Anil Dave’s endorsement, under a method set around the UPA government.
Why government opposed Bt brinjal?
- Long haul studies might be required to check its wellbeing and natural effect.
- It included innovation created by the multinational Monsanto (which had an indirect stake in Mahyco).
Case of GM mustard (DMH-11)
- Then again, GM mustard (DMH-11) was produced by a group of researchers at Delhi University driven by previous bad habit chancellor Deepak Pental under a legislature financed extend.
- Fundamentally, it utilizes three qualities from soil bacterium that makes self-pollinating plants, for example, mustard amiable to hybridisation.
What opponents say?
- Many of them are opposed to the commercial release of any form of transgenic plants; they fear that introducing genes from soil bacterium or other forms of animal life into plants will amount to playing with the natural order of plant life.
What proponents are saying?
- Defenders of GM products say plants and creatures are always swapping bacterial qualities with air, soil and water, and furthermore that the main method for deciding whether a quality can deliver proteins dangerous to people is to subject it to a methodical testing process.
- A long time of field tests on transgenic corn, soyabean and brinjal in different nations have demonstrated no wellbeing dangers that fluctuate with their non-GM variants.
- Farmers require innovation, new information and administrative support to get the best out of their seeds.
- Progressive governments have neglected to proceed onward the draft National Biotechnology Regulatory Bill, 2008 that would empower a biotechnology controller to come to fruition.
- Without such enactment, issues to be settled on the premise of science will be helpless before political practicality.
⏳ Minority status only if trusts enroll on NITI site
- Educational trusts and societies seeking minority status will now be required to register as non-governmental organisation with the NITI Aayog portal NGO – Darpan, whether they need government aid or not.
- This is likely to put all the financial transactions of the trust and its office-bearers under government scanner as details such as PAN and Aadhaar of all trustees and office-bearers will be required for the enrolment.
- “All petitioners are required to submit unique ID of the trust/society as given by the NITI Aayog portal NGO Darpan (it is not needed only in cases of institutions run by individuals),” the new rule said.
- The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions, since its inception in 2004, has awarded minority status certificates to 12,954 schools and colleges in the country.
- Minority status permits schools and colleges to have a say in the reservation quantum and limits interference from the government.
- The government last year made it mandatory for NGOs and voluntary organisations to register with the NITI Aayog portal to enable them to apply for grants from any Ministry.
- However, the trusts and NGOs not seeking government funding were not required to do so.
- The Constitution gives linguistic and religious minorities the fundamental right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
- A society or trust consisting of members of a minority community, or even a single member of a minority community, may establish an institution.
⏳ Defying warnings, N. Korea fires yet another missile
- North Korea, defying calls to rein in its weapons programme, fired a ballistic missile that landed in the sea near Russia on 14 May 2017, days after a new leader in South Korea came to power pledging to engage Pyongyang in dialogue.
- The U.S. military’s Pacific Command said it was assessing the type of missile that was fired but it was “not consistent with an intercontinental ballistic missile”.
- North Korea is widely believed to be developing an intercontinental missile tipped with a nuclear weapon that is capable of reaching the United States.
- An intercontinental ballistic missile is considered to have a range of more than 6,000 km.
What’s in news?
- The Labour Ministry may implement its proposed social security law in a phased manner, exempting small factories employing up to 10 workers, from its ambit initially.
- This was the first occasion when that the Central government had proposed a law for giving all inclusive standardized savings to all specialists which have been one of the key requests of the focal exchange unions.
- Be that as it may, little and medium ventures, which are kept out of standardized savings plots at present, had raised worries over the administration’s proposition.
- Giving standardized savings to all specialists will be one of the key subjects of the 47th Indian Labor Conference (ILC) which is probably going to be introduced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the not so distant future.
What’s in news?
- The electronic voting machine (EVM) can’t be impeccably secure.
- Be that as it may, it is conceivable to hold straightforward races by making its outline open, getting master assessment on its vulnerabilities, tending to them through an open procedure and utilizing VVPAT, with the right convention, for each machine in each race with open reviews, says George Washington University software engineering educator Poorvi L. Vora.
- She said that where VVPAT couldn’t be executed effectively and totally, there appeared to be no alternative other than paper tallies.
- Educator Vora is a part of a group of 31 exceptionally qualified researchers and specialists that as of late — through an open letter to Chief Election Commissioner Nasim Zaidi — raised a scope of issues identified with EVM security.
⏳ GST: What still needs to be done
- The Goods and Services Tax Council will meet on May 18- 19 to finalise various rules involved with implementing the new tax regime in the country, including on issues like input tax credit, valuation norms, composition and transition provisions, among others.
What has been done so far?
- The GST Council has met 13 times to finalise the minutiae of the five laws that will help bring the new tax regime to reality.
- Four of these laws have been cleared by the Union Cabinet and passed by Parliament.
- The fifth, the State GST law, needs to be passed by the legislative assemblies of each state and union territory with legislature.
- The Council still has to finalise the rules and rates of individual products and services.
Where is clarity needed?
- These issues include the place of supply rules for service companies.
- Clarity on this will determine whether a service has been provided on an inter-state or intra-state basis, which in turn will determine whether the Integrated GST tax will apply.
- Another major issue is the treatment of cases where the billing address is different from the shipping address.
- Since most companies have so far configured their ERP programs to incorporate GST as a destination-based tax, there is no clarity as yet in the rules as to what happens if the destination of the goods or service is different from where the bill is to be made.
- For example, if a company places an advertisement in the Mumbai edition of a Delhi-based newspaper, it can be billed in Mumbai only if the paper can show that it has an establishment in Mumbai and can print invoices there. Else, it will be billed to Delhi.
- Industry associations have sought for greater clarity on such issues from the government.
- Another issue is the e-waybill, required for the transport of goods across the country.
- The e-waybill has to be accepted by the seller, transporter, and recipient for the transaction to be closed as far the GST Network is concerned.
- Tax experts say that the reconciliation of waybills is a big problem now, with the recipient usually failing to accept the waybill, leaving the transaction incomplete.
- The e-waybill system will require a big change in behaviour for it to work, they say.
- A larger issue is that incorporating GST will require SMEs to overhaul and computerise their systems, since even dealing with the Harmonized System of Nomenclature (HSN) codes for individual products will require a computer.
- The codes are up to 10 digits in length.
- The first four define the category and the subsequent digits specify the exact product.
- For example, Lay’s chips and Kurkure could have the same first four digits, but subsequent digits would be different.
- Such an overhaul of systems and the implementation of a new ERP system takes time.
- Industry players are complaining that with the rules only being decided upon on May 18-19, they will be able to finalise their software only by the first week of June, leaving barely any time for testing.