States of healthcare
Health status of populations across the world changes over time in response to socio-economic, demographic, nutritional, scientific, technological, environmental and cultural shifts. Such health transitions have been especially profound in the past half-century due to sweeping industrialisation, rapid urbanisation and relentless globalisation in most parts of the world.
Global Burden of Disease study
- It is the most comprehensive worldwide observational epidemiological study to date.
- It describes mortality and morbidity from major diseases, injuries and risk factors to health at global, national and regional levels.
- Examining trends from 1990 to the present and making comparisons across populations enables understanding of the changing health challenges facing people across the world in the 21st century.
- In recent years, national and sub-national estimates are emerging to provide greater focus to action within countries.
- The first-of-its-kind Indian effort to map state-level disease burdens was undertaken by over 1,000 experts led by Lalit Dandona of the Public Health Foundation of India, in partnership with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the team that leads the global study.
- The results, reported last week, highlight significant trends common to all states as well as important differences between them.
- Life expectancy at birth improved in India from 59.7 years in 1990 to 70.3 years in 2016 for females, and from 58.3 years to 66.9 years for males.
Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases contributed to 61 per cent of India’s disease burden in 1990. This dropped to 33 per cent in 2016. But the share of non-communicable diseases in the disease burden increased from 30 per cent in 1990 to 55 per cent in 2016, and that of injuries increased from 9 per cent to 12 per cent.
There were large variations between states in the degree to which these risks are rising. States in early stages of the health transition were coping with both the persisting challenge of infectious, nutritional and pregnancy-related health threats and the rising magnitude of non-communicable diseases.