Answer with Explanation for Polity- Special MCQ-12
Q1. Correct Answer : C
The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added four new Directive Principles to the original list. They require the State:
To secure opportunities for healthy development of children (Article 39).
To promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor (Article 39 A).
To take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries (Article 43 A).
To protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wild life (Article 48 A).
The 97th Amendment Act of 2011 added a new Directive Principle relating to co-operative societies. It requires the state to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of cooperative societies (Article 43B).
Q2. Correct Answer : B
Filing tax returns and voting in elections are not fundamental duties. So, 1 and 2 will be wrong. It is a fundamental duty to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious boundaries. Law can be enacted to make the provision legally effective.
Q3. Correct Answer : C
To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years is a fundamental duty. Nourishment, health, happiness etc don’t come in it. So, 1 is wrong. If there was an option like respect the elderly, you can tickmark it right, since valuing and preserving the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture is a fundamental duty.
Q4. Correct Answer : D
The president must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
The 24th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1971 made it obligatory for the President to give his assent to a constitutional Amendment Bill.
Before this he could treat a constitutional amendment bill just as an ordinary bill and could use his veto powers. So, R is wrong.
Q5. Correct Answer : A
Statement 3 requires special majority.
Statement 4 requires Special Majority of Parliament and Consent of States.
Other important provisions that can be changed by simple majority of Parliament are:
Use of official language.
Citizenship-acquisition and termination.
Elections to Parliament and state legislatures.
Delimitation of constituencies.
Fifth Schedule-administration of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes.
Sixth Schedule-administration of tribal areas.
Q6. Correct Answer : A
The prime minister can advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its term and hold fresh elections. This means that the executive enjoys the right to get the legislature dissolved in a parliamentary system.
Q7. Correct Answer : C
The ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament in general and to the Lok Sabha in particular (Article 75).
They act as a team, and swim and sink together. The principle of collective responsibility implies that the Lok Sabha can remove the ministry (i.e., council of ministers headed by the prime minister) from office by passing a vote of no confidence. Members of the council of ministers are bound by consensus. The government cannot have two opinions on the same issue.
Q8. Correct Answer : C
In Britain, the prime minister should be a member of the Lower House (House of Commons) of the Parliament. In India, the prime minister may be a member of any of the two Houses of Parliament Usually, the members of Parliament alone are appointed as ministers in Britain. In India, a person who is not a member of Parliament can also be appointed as minister, but for a maximum period of six months.
Q9. Correct Answer : D
Although the Constitution of India has created a strong Central government, it has not made the state governments weak and has not reduced them to the level of administrative agencies for the execution of policies of the Central government. Indian federation has been described as as “a new kind of federation to meet India’s peculiar needs”. It is clearly seen from the above examples. This implies that the state governments are autonomous units working under Constitutional framework in tandem with the Centre to achieve common goals.
Q10. Correct Answer : B
If the Rajya Sabha declares that it is necessary in the national interest that Parliament should make laws on a matter in the State List, then the Parliament becomes competent to make laws on that matter. This cannot be declared by the President, Lok Sabha or the National
Security Council. So, all statements except 3 are wrong. The Parliament can make laws on any matter in the State List for implementing the international treaties, agreements or conventions.