UPSC Prelims-2017 Special MCQ-1 (Polity): Answer with Explanation

Answer with Explanation for Polity- Special MCQ-1



Q1. Correct Answer : D

Explanation:

Statement 1: It was actually the opposite. The act significantly reduced the powers of the Supreme Court at Calcutta. The actions of the servants of the Company in their official capacity were exempted from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

It also separated the Governor-General-in-Council and revenue matters from the Court’s jurisdiction.

Statement 2: The Act recognized the appellate jurisdiction of the Governor-Generalin-Council.

It empowered the Governor-General and Council to convene as a Court of Record to hear appeals from the Provincial Courts on civil cases. It meant that appeal could be taken from the provincial courts to the Governor General & Council and that was to be the final court of appeal.

Statement 3: The Act asserted that Mohammedan cases should be determined by Mohammedan law and Hindu law applied in Hindu cases. So, 3 is clearly wrong.

Q Source:

Improvisation: Chapter 1: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q2. Correct Answer : A

Explanation:

Statement 1: It introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. Thus, the Act ‘legalised communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.

Statement 2: Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member.

Statement 3: It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.

Statement 4: This was done in the Act of 1919.

Q Source:

Chapter 1: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q3. Correct Answer : C

Explanation:

  • The Act abolished the office of viceroy and provided, for each dominion, a governor-general, who was to be appointed by the British King on the advice of the dominion cabinet.
  • His Majesty’s Government in Britain was to have no responsibility with respect to the Government of India or Pakistan.
  • It also abolished the office of the secretary of state for India and transferred his functions to the secretary of state for Commonwealth Affairs.

Q Source:

Chapter 1: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q4. Correct Answer : A

Explanation:

Statement 1: Roughly, one seat was to be allotted for every million population.

Statement 2: There was no such provision. In fact, the 93 seats allotted to the princely states were not filled as they decided to stay away from the Constituent Assembly.

Statement 3: The representatives of each community were to be elected by members of that community in the provincial legislative assembly and voting was to be by the method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.

Statement 4: Seats allocated to each British province were to be decided among the three principal communities Muslims, Sikhs and general (all except Muslims and Sikhs), in proportion to their population.

Q Source:

Chapter 2: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q5. Correct Answer : D

Explanation:

  • The Constituent Assembly appointed a number of committees to deal with different tasks of constitution making.
  • Out of these, eight were major committees and the others were minor committees. The names of these committees and their chairmen are given below:
  • Major Committees:
    • Union Powers Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
    • Union Constitution Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
    • Provincial Constitution Committee – Sardar Patel
    • Drafting Committee – Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
    • Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas- Sardar Patel.
    • Rules of Procedure Committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
    • States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States) – Jawaharlal Nehru
    • Steering Committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Q Source:

Chapter 2: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q6. Correct Answer : A

Explanation:

  • Both the Indian provinces and Princely states were the members of constituent assembly of India.
  • Former taken together were greater in number than the princely states.
  • United Provinces had 55 members, Madras had 49, West Bengal 19 and Bombay 21.
  • Out of all princely states, Travancore had the highest membership of 6. Othe princely states had 1-4 members in the constituent assembly of India.

Q Source:

Table 2.1: Chapter 2: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q7. Correct Answer : D

Explanation:

  • The term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution.
  • Article 1 describes India as a ‘Union of States’.
  • This implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation. So, a secessionist movement by say the state of Nagaland is not legitimate and constitutional.

Both statements 1 and 2 are wrong.

Hence, the Indian Constitution has been variously described as ‘federal in form but unitary in spirit’.

Q Source:

Chapter 3: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q8. Correct Answer : B

Explanation:

Statement 1: The Indian Parliament is not a sovereign body even though it is based on British Parliamentary model where the Parliament is sovereign.

Statement 2: The parliamentary system is based on the principle of cooperation and co-ordination between the legislative and executive organs and the collective responsibility of the latter to the former. It is not accountable to the Judiciary. Judiciary only reviews the actions of the executive when challenged.

Statement 3: Ministers are mostly chosen from the legislature. They act as the members of the particular house.

Statement 4: President and Governor are nominal executives, whereas the PM and CMs are real executives wielding de facto powers.

Statement 5: The Chairman of the house resolves all major disputes within the Parliament including the charges of political defection under anti-defection law.

However, in some cases like investigation of scams and election related disputes, Judiciary resolves the disputes.

Q Source:

Chapter 3: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q9. Correct Answer : C 

Explanation:

  • Option (a): They do recognize. For e.g. certain laws that violate Article 14 of the constitution can be declared legitimate if they fulfil DPSP under parts of Article 39. In the Minerva Mills case (1980), the Supreme Court held that ‘the Indian Constitution is founded on the bedrock of the balance between the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles’.
  • Option (b): DPSP like organizing village panchayats, cheap legal remedies for the poor have already been implemented by law.
  • Option (c): For e.g. if adequate steps are not taken to stop circulation of intoxicants like liquors (a DPSP), the courts cannot dictate the government to do so.

Q Source:

Chapter 3: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q10. Correct Answer : D

Explanation:

Statement 1: The Preamble secures to all citizens of India liberty of belief, faith and worship.

Statement 2: The State shall endeavour to secure for all the citizens a Uniform Civil Code (Article 44 of DPSP).

Statement 3: Article 51A mentions this as one of the fundamental duties: “to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.”

Statement 4: The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or equal protection of the laws (Article 14). The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on the ground of religion (Article 15). All persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess, practice and propagate any religion (Article 25).

Q Source:

Chapter 3: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q11. Correct Answer : C

Explanation:

Statement 1: It falls under the fourth schedule.

Statement 2: These are covered by the Representation of People of India Act.

Statement 3: These are matters of the second schedule. It also covers emoluments, allowances etc.

Statement 5: The Anti-defection part is covered under the tenth schedule.

Q Source:

Table 3.3: Chapter 3: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


Q12. Correct Answer : D

Explanation:

  • The Supreme Court has held that the Preamble is a part of the Constitution.
  • As per the SC, the Preamble can be amended under A368, subject to the condition that no amendment is done to the ‘basic features’.
  • The Preamble has been amended only once so far, in 1976, by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, which has added three new words-Socialist, Secular and Integrity-to the Preamble. This amendment was held to be valid.

Q Source:

Chapter 4: Indian Polity: M Laxmikanth


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